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v. 



7^ 



c 



THE 



COMMON SPIDERS 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



By JAMKS H. EMERTON 



« 8 « 5 7 » 

Boston, U.S.A., and London 

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

Cbe Sitbcnacttm |)rc60 



Entered at Stationers' Hall 



Copyright, 1902, by 
JAMES H. E.MERTON 

ALL RItlHTS RESERVED 
24.12 



BiomedicaJ 
Library 

US' 

FS3C. 

PREFACE 



There are few books on the American spiders, and these 
are either large and expensive works or else special papers 
published by scientific societies, and so little known to the 
public. Since publishing my papers on the New England and 
Canadian spiders in the Transactions of tJie Connecticut Acad- 
emy from 1882 to 1894, I have had frequent calls for a smaller 
and simpler book to meet the wants of readers who, without 
making a special study of the subject, want to know a little 
about spiders in general and especially those species that they 
often meet with. It is hoped this book will answer the pur- 
pose and help to lessen the prejudice against spiders, and lead 
to a more general acquaintance with them, like the popular 
knowledge of birds and butterflies. The characters used in 
the descriptions are, as far as possible, those that can be seen 
without microscopic examination and without much experience 
in the handling of small animals. The illustrations, which show 
the form and markings of every species, are from my own 
drawings and photographs, a large part of them made new 

for this book. 

J. H. EMERTON. 

April, 1902. 



CONTENTS 

Introduction p^^e 

Number and Names of Spiders vii 

Anatomy viii 

Silk and Spinning Organs x 

Colors and Markings xi 

Habitats of Common Spiders ..... xii-xiv 

Cobwebs .......... xvi 

Catching and preserving Spiders ..... xvii 

The Drassid.e .......... 1-21 

Clubiona .......... 15 

The Dysderidte ......... 22 

The Thomisid^ .......... 24-40 

Misumena 25 

Xysticus 30 

Philodromus ......... 35 

The Attid^ 41-66 

The Lycosid^ 67-90 

Lycosa 68 

Pardosa .......... 78 

dolomedes .......... 85 

Ocyale 88 

OXYOPES 88 

The AgalenidyE gi-io6 

The Theridid^ 107-133 

Theridium no 

Steatoda .119 

Pholcus 128 

scytodes . . . . . . . . . .131 



vi CONTENTS 

Page 

The Linyphiad/E ......... 134-153 

LiXVPHIA . . . . . . . . . .134 

Erigoxe 14S 

The EPEiRiDyE 154-204 

Round Webs of the Epeikid.e 15 5- '59 

Species of Epeira 1C0-181 

The Three Species of the Genus Zilla . . . 184 

acrosoma .......... 188 

Argiope 192-198 

Tetragnatha 198-204 

The CiNiFLONiD/E, OR Cribellata ... . . 205-220 

Dictyna ....... . . 205 

Amaurobius . . . . . . . . . 213 

Uloborus . . . . . . . . . .216 

Hyptiotes . . . . . . . . . 218 

Filistata .......... 220 



INTRODUCTION 

This book is designed to make the reader acquainted with 
the common spiders most likely to be found over a large part 
of the United States as far south as Georgia and as far west as 
the Rocky Mountains. Local collections show that in the 
neighborhood of any city in the country there are at least three 
or four hundred species of spiders ; but few such collections 
have been made, and it is not yet possible to tell all the 
kinds of spiders that live in any particular place, or how far 
any species extends over the country. The species which 
are here described and figured are all of them well known and 
have been described in other books. Rare and doubtful species 
are omitted, though some of these may in time prove to be among 
the most common. A large number of spiders are too small to 
be easily seen, and most of these are omitted, only a few repre- 
sentative species being described. Spiders have, unfortunately, 
no common names, except such indefinite ones as " the garden 
spider," "the black spider," "the jumping spider," and the 
like. Even "tarantula" has become only a nickname for 
any large spider. The names of spiders, like those of other 
animals, have been given to them independently by different 
persons, so that many of them have more than one name, and 
the more common the spider the larger the number of names. 
In this book only one name is usually given to each species, and 
the name used is one that has been published with a descrip- 
tion of the species in some other well-known book. Readers 
who are interested in the names of species and in comparing 
the classifications of different naturalists are referred to a 



viii INTRODUCTIOxN 

" Catalogue of the Described Araneae of Temperate North 
America," by George Marx, in the Proceedings of tJie United 
States XationalMnseum, 1890, which is a useful index to what 
has been published on American spiders. 

The front half of a spider's body, called the cephalothorax, 
contains in one piece the head and thorax, the only outward 
division between them being shallow grooves from the middle 
of the back to the front legs. In the middle of the cephalo- 
thorax is usually a groove or depression, under which, inside, 
is a muscle that moves the sucking apparatus by which food is 
drawn into the mouth. At the sides of the thoracic part are 
four pairs of legs, and on the head part are a pair of palpi 
and a pair of mandibles. The legs have seven joints: (i) the 
coxa, the thick basal joint, having little motion; (2) the tro- 
chanter, a short joint moving very freely on the end of the 
coxa ; (3) the femur, the largest joint of the leg, moving with 
the trochanter in all directions; (4) the patella, moving up and 
down on the end of the femur; (5) the tibia, joined closely to 
the patella and moving with it up and down ; (6) the meta- 
tarsus ; and (7) the tarsus, moving together on the end of the 
tibia. The -pa1pj are like small legs and have one less joint 
than the walking legs. The mandibles are close together at 
the front of the head (fig. 2). They are two-jointed, the basal 
joint stout and the end joint or claw slender and sharp-pointed. 
The claw has near its point a small hole, which is the outlet 
of the poison gland. The poison kills or disables the insects 
which are captured by the spider. Its effect on the human 
skin varies in different persons ; sometimes it has no effect at 
all ; oftener it causes some soreness and itching like the stings 
of mosquitoes and bees, and cases have been known in which it 
caused serious inflammation which lasted a long time. Spiders 
seldom bite, and only in defense, the bites so commonly charged 
to them being often the work of other animals. 



INTRODUCTION 



IX 



On the front of the head are the eyes, usually eight in 
number, differing in size and arrangement according to the 



TARSUS 



CLAW or 

MANDIBLE 
MANDIBLE 



■ mAxilla 

LABIUM 




y^ 



OPENING 
OrAIR SACS 



EPIGYNUM 



^i 



MANDIBLES 



CLAW 



TRACHEA 



Mf\--VsPlNIMERETS 



Fig. I. Diagram of the under side of a spider, with the legs removed except one. 
Fig. 2. Front of head, showing the eyes and mandibles. 



kind of spider. The sight of spiders is distinct for only short 
distances. Spiders of middle size can see each other, and the 



X INTRODUCTION 

insects which they eat, at a distance of four or five inches, but 
beyond that do not seem to see anything clearly. At the ends 
of the feet are two claws, curved and with teeth along the inner 
edge, and in many spiders there is a third shorter claw between 
them (fig. 212). The claws are sometimes surrounded by a 
brush of flattened hairs (figs. 104, 1 14). The basal joints of the 
palpi are flattened and have their inner edges extended forward 
so that they can be used as jaws to press or chew the food. 
These are called the m.axillse. Between the maxillae is a small 
piece called the labium, and between the legs is a larger oval 
piece called the sternum. 

The hinder half of the body, the abdomen, is connected with 
the cephalothorax by a narrow stem (fig. i). It has at the 
hinder end the spinnerets, three pairs of appendages having 
at their ends a great number of microscopic tubes through 
which the thread is drawn out. When not in use the spin- 
nerets are folded together, so that the smaller inner pair are 
concealed. 
i The thread of spiders resembles that spun by caterpillars in 
making their cocoons, and can be manufactured in the same 
way into silk cloth. The spider's thread is composed of a great 
number of finer threads passing from the body through separate 
tubes and uniting into one before they have time to dry. This 
can be seen by examining the attachments of spiders' threads 
to glass. All the spinning tubes are not alike, but on certain 
parts of the spinnerets are larger or differently shaped tubes, 
and these are the outlets of glands of different kinds in the 
spider's abdomen, and are used in making different kinds of 
threads for certain parts of the webs, nests, or cocoons. \ 

In front of the spinnerets on the under side is a small 
opening to the tracheae, or air-tubes (fig. i). At the front 
of the abdomen on the under side is a transverse fold of the 
skin, at the ends of which are the openings of the air-sacs or 



INTRODUCTION xi 

lungs, and between them the opening of the reproductive 
organs (fig. i). The latter is covered in females by an appa- 
ratus, sometimes large and complicated, called the epigynum. 
Its presence shows that the fermile is full grown. Young 
spiders do not have it. Male spiders have the ends of the palpi 
enlarged, and under the terminal joint what is known as the 
palpal organ, sometimes very complicated in shape. The pres- 
ence of these organs shows that the male is flill grown. 
Young males that have nearly reached maturity have the ends 
of the palpi simply enlarged. Male spiders almost always have 
the body smaller and the legs longer than females of the same 
species. 

The colors of spiders are partly in the skin itself and partly 
in the hairs and scales that cover it. Almost all spiders are 
covered with hair of some kind, but in some species it is so 
fine and short that it has little effect on the color. In others 
the skin is entirely covered with hairs of various lengths and 
sometimes with scales somewhat like those of butterflies, flat- 
tened and feathered or toothed on the edges. The color* of 
spiders are very varied, and in many species, especially of the 
jumping spiders, as brilliant as those of butterflies. The most 
common colors are grays and browns, resembling the ground 
or plants and stones among which the spiders live. Sometimes 
the color is uniform all over the body, except that it is a little 
darker toward the head and the ends of the feet. The most 
common marking is a spot on the front of the abdomen over 
the spider's heart, sometimes merely a translucent part of the 
skin and sometimes a definite color spot darker in the middle 
and outlined with a lighter shade or white. The hinder half 
of the abdomen is often marked with several pairs of spots, 
becoming smaller toward the end, and these spots may be 
united into a pair of stripes or a more complicated pattern. 
(See figures.) The legs are often marked wi|h rings of color, 



xii INTRODUCTION 

almost always at the ends of the joints. Besides these common 
markings there are in some spiders strong contrasts of color, 
such as bright red or yellow spots on a black ground. In the 
males, especially among the Attidas, there are often shining 
scales that reflect different colors in a bright light, and tufts of 
black or white hairs about the head and front legs. 

Spiders live in all kinds of places. Certain species are 
attached to houses and seldom found far from them, and many 
of these occur over a large part of the world. The light webs 
in the corners of rooms are chiefly the work of TJieridiiim 
tcpidarionun (p. 112), occasionally of Steatoda borealis (p. 119) 
and Steatoda triangiilosa (p. 121). In cellars the thin webs 
about the stairs and shelves are those of the long-legged 
PJiolcns pJialangioidcs (p. 129) or of LinypJiia nebidosa or mi7iuta 
(pp. 144, 145), and the thick flat webs in corners and between 
the beams are those of Tegenaria dcrJiaviii (p. 96). On the out- 
side of houses live two jumping spiders, the most common being 
Epiblemutn scenicinn (p. 60), a small grav species the color of 
weathered wood, and the other, JMarptiisa faniiliaris (p. 61). 
Some of the round-web spiders live in great numbers about 
houses. The three brown species, Epeira sclopetaria (p. 160), 
patagiata, and st7-ix, hide in cragks and at night make their 
round webs in porches, barns, and bridges. In the northern 
part of the country Epeira cinerea (p. 165) has the same habit. 
Epeu'a globosa (p. 174) is often found on the outside of houses, 
and so are Zilla atrica and Zilla x-notata (p. 185). Amajirobiiis 
ferox (p. 215), a large imported species, is sometimes found 
in cellars, and several Dictyna (p. 206) live in great numbers 
on the outside of houses, in corners of windows, under the 
edges of shingles, or in cracks of walls, spreading their webs 
wherever there is room for them and gathering dust so that 
they often make a distinct spot on the wall. In the southern 
states Filistata hibernalis (p 220) is one of the most common 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

spiders about houses. Its webs often make a round spot of 
dust a foot or more in diameter. Stones and sticks lying on 
the ground furnish shelter for a great number of spiders. 
Steatoda borealis (p. 119), viarniorata (p. 121), and guttata 
(p. 120) and Asagena anicricana (p. 122) are found in such 
places, and so, especially in the South, is Latrodcctiis mactans 
(p. 122). The large jumping spiders, Phidippus mystaceus 
(p. 50) and tripjinctatiis (p. 51), make large nests of white 
silk under stones near the ground. The ground spiders, 
Drassiis saccatns (p. 6), GnapJiosa conspersa (p. 2), and Pros- 
tJicsima atra (p. 5), run on the ground and hide under stones. 
Lycosa nidicola (p. 69), Lycosa conmiimis (p. 75), Lycosa pra- 
tensis (p. 69), polita (p. 70), and cinerea (p. 74) are often found 
under shelters of this kind. The crab spiders of the genus 
Xysticus live under stones, but oftener under bark farther 
from the ground. 

In the summer, plants of all kinds from grass to trees are full 
of spiders. The Lycosas (pp. 68 to 84) run among the short 
grass. The small species of Linyphia (p. 1 34) and Erigone 
(p. 148) make their flat webs close to the ground among small 
plants. LinypJiia viarginata, commit Jiis, coccinea, 2ind phrygiana 
make theirs among plants and rocks, a foot or two above the 
ground. The Theridiums (p. no) live between leaves and on 
the ends of twigs, covering them with webs that only show 
when the dew is on them. Agalc7ia jicBvia (pp. 91 to 95) makes 
its flat webs on the grass and anywhere else where it can find a 
place to fasten them. The jumping spiders (p. 41) run about 
for their prey on plants, and some of them have silk nests 
among the leaves. The Misumenas (p. 25) live among flowers 
and wait for insects to alight within reach. The webs of 
Dictyna (p. 206) are commonest on the ends of grass and 
twigs, and are known by the dust that they gather. The 
round-web spiders mature in the middle of the summer, and 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

then Epeh-a trivittata (p. i66) is found on all kinds of bushes 
and grass, and later Epeira msidaris (p. 169) and Epeira tvifolunn 
(p. 171) in hidden nests near their webs. Epeira angiilata, 
sylvatica, and nordnianni (p. 162) live among bushes and 
trees. Cyclosa conica (p. 183), Acrosoma spiiiea (p. 190), and 
Uloborus (p. 216) live among low bushes in openings of the 
woods. Hyptiotes (p. 218) lives among the lower dead branches 
of pines, perching on the end of a twig which it exactly matches 
in color. 

The marshes are the home of great numbers of spiders. The 
Tetragnathas (p. 198) live there, especially along the streams 
and ditches. Epeira gibberosa (p. 175) and/'/rt:«V/(« (p. 176) make 
their horizontal and oblique webs among the tall grass in open 
places. The two species of Argiope (pp. 193 to 198) swarm in 
marshes and open fields and in autumn become conspicuous by 
their size and bright colors, and when they disappear leave over 
winter their brown cocoons (pp. 197, 200) fastened to the grass. 

The moss and dead leaves in the woods are alive with 
spiders ; even in summer some species always live there, and 
in winter the young of those that in warm weather live among 
the bushes find shelter where they can remain torpid through 
the cold season without freezing. 

The eggs of spiders are covered with silk, forming a cocoon 
which varies much in shape and color in different species. 
Some spiders hang it in the web, others attach it to plants or 
stones, and others carry it about with them either in the mandi- 
bles or attached behind to the spinnerets. The young remain 
in the cocoon until they are able to run about, and after com- 
ing out of the cocoon keep together for a short time, sometimes 
in a web which they make in common, sometimes in a nest 
made by the mother, and in some species on the mother's 
back, but they soon scatter and hunt their own food or make 
cobwebs, according to the habits of the species. 



INTRODUCTION XV 

Different kinds of spiders mature and breed at different 
times of the year, most of them living only one season. Those 
that mature late, \ikt_^ga/eua Jicevia and Argiope, pass the 
winter as eggs, \m^E those that mature early, like Epeira 
sclopctaria and Lycosa nidicola, pass the winter half grown. 
Some species, like Thcridiuin tcpidarioruvi (p. 1 1 2), breed sev- 
eral times in the year, and old and young are found at all 
seasons. 

The spiders are naturally divided into two groups of families: 
(i) the hunting spiders, which run on the ground or on plants, 
catching insects wherever they find them, or waiting among 
leaves and flowers until insects come within their reach ; 
(2) the cobweb spiders, which make webs to catch insects and 
live all the time in the web or in a nest near it. 

The hunting spiders include: (i) the Dysderidae (p. 22), a 
few species with six eyes only and with four breathing holes at 
the front end of the abdomen ; (2) the Drassidas (p. i), or 
ground spiders, which live among stones and dead leaves or 
among plants, making tubular nests and flat ^gg cocoons but 
no cobwebs ; (3) the Thomisidas (p. 24), the flat and crab-like 
spiders living on plants or under bark and stones; (4) the 
Attidae (p. 41), the jumping spiders, with wide heads and 
large front eyes, many of them brightly colored and active in 
their habits; (5) the Lycosidae (p. 6^), the long-legged run- 
ning spiders, living on the ground and, a few of them, in holes 
and carrying about their round ^gg cocoons attached to the 
spinnerets. 

The cobweb spiders include : (i) the Agalenidae (p. 91), mak- 
ing flat webs on grass or in corners of houses, with a tube at 
one side in which the spider lives; (2) the Therididac (p. 107), 
round spiders with flat or irregular webs in corners and on 
plants; (3) the Linyphiadae (p. 134), with fiat webs, small 
spiders of a great number of species living near the ground 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

and in shady places ; (4) the Eipeiridae (p. 154), the round-web 
spiders ; (5) the Cribellata, having a calamistrum (see p. 205) 
on the hind legs and making rough webs that gather dust. 
Cobwebs are of four principal kinds : 

1. The fiat webs, closely woven of long threads crossed by 
finer ones in all directions and connected with a tubular nest 
where the spider hides, and from which it runs out on the 
upper side of the web after insects that may fall upon it. 
These are made by Agalena and Tegenaria (pp. 91 to 104). 

2. The net-like webs, made of smooth threads in large 
meshes, sometimes in a fiat or curved sheet held out by threads 
in all directions. The spider lives on the under side, back 
downward. These are made by Therididae and Linyphiadae 
(pp. 107, 134). 

3. The round webs, made of threads radiating from a common 
center and crossed by circular loops and spirals, part of which 
are adhesive. 

4. The webs of the Cinifionidae, composed in part of loose 
bands of silk (p. 205). 

The simplest and best way to preserve spiders for examina- 
tion is to put them in alcohol. It kills them immediately and 
keeps their form and markings and, to a great extent, their 
colors. They may be kept alive for a few days in glass bottles 
or jars. It is not necessary to make holes in the covers, or to 
feed the spiders often. They need water, and this can be fur- 
nished them conveniently by putting a piece of wet paper or 
rag in the bottle. 

If one wishes to find what spiders live in his neighborhood, 
they must be looked for at all times and in all kinds of places. 
The house and cellar should be looked over and the spiders 
watched until they are fully grown. The outside of the house 
and fences should be looked over occasionally in the same way, 
only those spiders being taken that are full grown, unless they 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

are of new or rare kinds. A great many spiders may be found 
on the garden fences of a shady street, especially in the early 
summer and again in the autumn. At both seasons they are 
more active in the middle of the day and more likely then 
to be wandering about. The writer always carries two small 
bottles, one a common homeopathic medicine vial, holding one 
or two drams and half full of alcohol, the other a straight tube 
vial, without any neck and about the same size, that is kept 
always dry and occasionally wiped out to remove the threads 
that are made in it. The dry bottle is placed quickly over the 
spider and moved about until the spider is coaxed to go into it. 
The bottle is then turned up and closed with a finger until the 
other bottle can be uncorked and the spider shaken into the 
alcohol. In the fields and along the country roads the stones 
and sticks that have been lying for some time on the ground 
should be carefully lifted and searched, both on the under sur- 
face and on the ground below. The stones and sticks should 
be turned back into the same places so that other spiders 
may find at once comfortable places to hide under. If they 
are dropped on new ground, it may be a year before they 
are fit to use again. Among trees and shrubs the best 
things are to be found by moving slowly about and watching 
for spiders, nests, and cobwebs without disturbing them. The 
webs can be best seen when moving toward the light. The 
greatest number of spiders can usually be found along paths 
and the edges of woods, and paths through the woods are the 
best places for many ground spiders. 

Spiders should be looked for in the same way in grass, by 
creeping along on the ground or by sitting down and watching 
until something walks into view ; or the grass and weeds may 
be swept with a cotton bag, fastened on a hoop like a dip net, 
with a short handle, and the spiders picked out with a dry 
bottle from among: the leaves and insects that will be g-athered 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

with them. Bushes may be swept in the same way, or may be 
shaken over an open umbrella, or a piece of cloth or paper. In 
winter, when spiders are torpid, great numbers can be found 
by sifting the dead leaves that have been lying for some years 
in the woods. A common coal sieve is fine enough to hold the 
leaves while the spiders and sticks and dirt pass through, and 
may be picked over on a cloth or carried home in a bag and 
examined in the house. The sifting should be repeated several 
times, as many of the spiders hold to threads among the leaves 
and become loosened only after much shaking. 

In the following pages a general description is given of each 
family, followed by descriptions of the species belonging to it, 
with a figure of each species placed as near as possible to the 
description. In some cases, where the genera are large and 
well defined, separate descriptions are given of each genus, but 
where the genus is not easy to distinguish or represented by 
only a few species, there is no separate generic description, and 
the species are placed next to those of other genera to which 
they are most closely related. If the names of spiders are 
known, they can readily be found by the index at the end of 
the book. If information is sought about an unknown spider, 
the illustrations through the book furnish the most convenient 
index, as the general form and proportions of spiders and the 
arrangement of their eyes usually show to what family they 
belong. The ground spiders and those without cobwebs are 
described first, and the sedentary species living in webs in the 
last half of the book. Readers unfamiliar with the subject are 
advised to read first the descriptions of the families and com- 
pare with them the spiders that they find in their own neigh- 
borhoods. The figures are in most cases enlarged for the sake 
of distinctness, and spiders of much smaller size must be 
looked for. 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



THE DRASSID/E 

^ The Drassidae, like the Lycosidae (p. 6"]), are ground spiders, 
though some genera, like Anyphaena (p. 12) and Clubiona 
(p. 15), are equally common in summer on bushes. They 
make nests in the form of a bag or flattened tube, but no 
cobwe55Tor catching insects, and are commonly found running 
about among dead leaves and short grass and sometimes even 
on bare ground and sand. In form they are usually two or 
three times as long as they are wide, like the Lycosidas (p. 6^), 
but more often flattened on the back. The legs differ but 
little in length, and the first and second pairs are directed for- 
ward, the third and fourth backward. Their hairs and spines 
are short, giving them a smooth, velvet-like appearance. The 
feet have two claws, with a bfush of flattened hairs under 
them, like the Thomisidas and Attidas (p. 41), but unlike the 
Lycosidae (p. 6j), which have three claws. The mandibles are 
large and strong and are together as wide as the head. The 
eyes are all about the same size and arranged in two rows 
of about the same length and not far apart, but between dif- 
ferent species there are slight differences in their arrangement. 
The colors are usually dull gray, brown, and black, with few 
markings or none. A few species are very brightly marked, 
as in Micaria (p. 9) and Poecilochroa (p. 4). 
There are three groups among the Drassidae : 
I. Prosthesima, Gnaphosa, Poecilochroa, Pythonissa, and 
Drassus, which are generally dark in color and flattened above. 



THE COMMON SPIDP:RS 



with the cephalothorax narrow in front and the eyes covering 
about half the width of the head and differing in their relative 
positions among the different genera. The labium is long and 
the maxillae slightly widened at the end, or with the outer 
(9 O O O corners rounded off and sometimes a 
qOOO crease or depression in the middle. 
The joints of the first legs are some- 
times thickened in the middle. The 
ower spinnerets are longer than the 
others and flat on the end. 
'^ 2. Micaria, Geotrecha, Phrurolithus, 
Agroeca, and Anyphaena, in which the 
body is less flattened, the legs longer, and 
the movements quicker. The colors are 
lighter and more varied. The labium is 
short and the maxill?e with straight sides. 
»^. Clubiona, Chiracanthium, and 
Trachelas, in which the colors are plain 
and light, the eyes spread over more than 
half the front of the head and close 
to its front edge. The labium is as 
long as it is in Drassus, but con- 
tracted at the base. The maxillae 
are narrow in the middle and flat 
and wide at the ends. 
y Gnaphosa conspersa. — Half an inch 
long and rusty black in color. In 
alcohol the legs and cephalothorax 
are dark reddish brown and the abdomen gray. The whole 
body is covered with fine black hairs. The cephalothorax and 
abdomen are about the same size and a little flattened. The 
legs are stout and all nearly the same length. The upper row 
of eyes is nearly straight and the lateral eyes much farther 




Figs. 3, 4, 5. flnaphosa conspersa. 
— 4, female enlarged four times. 
3, the eyes seen from in front. 
5, the maxillae, labium, and ends 
of the mandibles from below. 



THE DRASSID^E 



from the middle pair than these are from each other (fig. 3). 

The middle eyes are oval and oblique, diverging toward the 

front. The maxillae are large, and rounded on the outer 

corners. The mandibles are large and strong, with a wide, 

flat, serrated tooth (fig. 5) under the claw. The cocoon is 

white and flat, with a diameter as great as the length of the 

spider. The female, as far as I have observed, %^^ qq q^ 

makes no nest, but partly lines with silk a shal- \\ O^Oq 

low hole, in which she nurses her cocoon. ^^ 

It lives under stones and leaves as far ^X, ^ 

north as the White Mountains and west to the ^\i -"^ 

Rocky Mountains in British Columbia, and on 

the Pacific coast in Oregon. A smaller and 

similar species, GiiapJwsa bnnnalis, 

lives on the top of Mount Washing- ^^^, 

ton and as far north as Labrador. 

Tythonissa imbecilla. — About quarter of an 
inch long, bright orange brown on the 
cephalothorax and legs and blue black on 
the abdomen, with a few white hairs around 
the muscular spots. The legs are covered 
with fine long hairs a little darker in color 
than the skin. The cephalothorax is wide 
behind and more narrowed in front than in 
Gnaphosa. The eyes (fig. 6) are close together, 
and the lateral eyes of both rows are larger 
than the middle pairs and a little farther back 
on the head. The maxillas (fig. 8) are short 
and wide, and bent toward each other so that they nearly meet 
in front of the labium. The front edges are nearly straight and 
the outer corners only slightly rounded. The sternum is wide 
and almost circular. The tarsus of the female palpi tapers 
from the base to the tip. 




Figs. 6, 7, 8. Pytho- 
iiissa imbecilla. — 7, 
female enlarged four 
times. 6, the eyes 
seen from in front. 
8, the maxillae, la- 
bium, and ends of 
mandibles from be- 
low. 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



I 



Poecilochroa variegata. 

colored of the family 
o o 



• This is one of the most brightly 
The cephalothorax is bright orange, 









a little darker toward the eyes. The 
abdomen is black, with three trans- 
verse white stripes and a T-shaped 
white mark between the first and 
second stripes. On the front of 
the abdomen the white stripes are 
sometimes tinged with orange. The 
femora of the first and second legs 
lo are black. The distal end of the 

femur and both ends of the tibia of the fourth 
legs are black. Other parts of the legs are 
orange-colored. The female is quarter of an 
inch long. The cephalothorax is narrower than 
in Prosthcsiina atra and Gnaphosa couspersa, 
and the sternum longer and narrower. The 
maxillae (fig. lo) are long and widened at the 
outer corners. The two rows of eyes (fig. 9) 
are almost straight, the upper one longer than 
the lower. 

Poecilochroa bilineata. — A little smaller than 
P. variegata, but with the abdomen longer. 
Cephalothorax and abdomen both white at 
the sides and in the middle, with two black 
stripes from the eyes nearly to the spin- 
nerets. The abdomen is covered with long 
hairs, black in the stripes and silvery white 
in the light portions. The legs are gray, 
with white hairs. The under side is light 

Upper and under views g^^y, with tWO black StripeS at the sidcS of 

of female without tiie the abdomcu that do not quite reach the 

legs, enlarged four . 

times. spmnerets. The spinnerets are unusually 



Figs. 9, 10, 1 1. INe- 
cilochroa variegata. 
— II, female en- 
larged four times. 

9, eyes from in front. 

10, maxill?E, labium, 
and ends of mandi- 
bles from below. 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 



Poecilochroa bilineata. — 



THE DRASSID.-E 



5 



OOOq 

oooo 



long. The eyes are arranged as in varicgata, the middle 

eyes being even more distinctly farther apart than they are 

from the lateral eyes. 

'^ Prosthesima atra. — Black, and 

less than a third of an inch long. 

It may be mistaken for a small 

Gnaphosa conspersa, but, besides 

the small size, the abdomen is 

usually longer in proportion and 

the head is narrower than in 

Gnaphosa. The color is usually 

black and less likely to be gray in 
the young and rusty in the old, but the feet and 
under side of the abdomen are sometimes yellow- 
ish in the young. The eyes (fig. 14) are closer 
together and the two rows more nearly of the 
same length. In alcohol the cephalothorax I'-s- 14, 15- '6. 

Prosthesima atra. — 

and legs are blacker than in Gnaphosa and less 16, female en- 
brown. The maxilla; (fig. 15) are a little longer '^^''g'^d four times. 

\ ^ J I b^' 14, eyes seen from 

and less rounded at the outer corners than in in front. i5,max- 

/-. 1 T-> 1 • T-1 T1 1 r- Wix, labium, and 

Gnaphosa or rythonissa. 1 he mandibles (fig. i 5) ends of mandibles 

are without the large teeth under the claw that ^™'" ^^^'^o\s. 

Gnaphosa and Pythonissa have, and they 

are turned forward more than in those 

genera. It lives on the ground and under 

stones. The cocoon is white or pink, 

attached by the under surface, with the 

upper side convex and thickened in 

the middle, sometimes with a little dirt 

attached to it. 

Prosthesima ecclesiastica. — Black, with 





Fig. 17. 



Fig. 18. 



white markino-s along the middle of the Prosthesima ecclesiastica.— 

° ^ _ Upper and under views of 

back. One-third of an inch long, a little female enlarged four times. 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



larger than P. atra and smaller than Gjiaphosa coiispersa. The 
cephalothorax is proportionally longer and narrower and the 
sternum narrower and less round than in P. atra (fig. i8). 
The cephalothorax is dull black at the sides, with a whitish 
stripe in the middle. The legs are also 
dull black and, like the cephalothorax, turn 
brown in alcohol. The abdomen is black, 
with a bright white stripe in the middle 
that extends from the front end about two- 
thirds its length ; and at the hinder end, just 
over the spinnerets, is another white mark 
(fig. 17). The under side of the abdomen 
is dark at the sides and light in the middle. 
The eyes and maxillae are as in P. atra, the 
maxillae a little less rounded at the ends. 

Drassus saccatus. — Four-fifths of an inch 
long, and pale, without markings. The 
head is shorter and wider than in GnapJiosa 
conspersa and ProstJicsima atra, and the 
eyes cover a larger part of the head. Both 
rows of eyes (figs. 2, 19) are curved, with 
the middle highest. The middle upper 
pair are oval and turned apart toward the 
front. The lateral eyes are twice their 
diameter from the middle pair. The max- 
illae (fig. i) are widened at the ends on both 
sides. The labium is as wide as it is long, 
narrowed toward the end but truncated at 
the tip. The color is light gray, with short 
fine hairs all over the body. The front of the head, the feet, 
and the mandibles and maxillae are darker and browner. The 
abdomen is marked only with the usual four muscular spots 
and sometimes a few transverse dark markings toward the 



Fig. 19. Drassus saccatus. 
— Female enlarged three 
times. For eyes and 
mouth parts see figs, i 
and 2 in Introduction. 



THE DRASSID/E 



hinder end. The legs are long and tapering in both sexes. 
The male is smaller and more slender than the female, and 
the male palpi are long, with the end very little enlarged. 
They live under stones, and make a large transparent bag of 
silk in which the female makes her cocoon of ^ 
eggs, and stays with it until the young come 
out. Early in the summer a male and 
female often live together in the nest, even 
before the female is mature. 
- Geotrecha crocata. — Black, with the 
ends of the legs light yellow and a 
bright red spot on the end of the 
abdomen. It is about a third of an 
inch long. The legs are slender and 
the body is not at all flattened. The 
cephalothorax is two-thirds as wide as long, 
oval behind and narrowed in front of the , 
legs, where the sides of the head are /^ 
nearly parallel. The abdomen is oval and 
nearly twice as long as wide. The spinnerets 
are so far under the body that they show but 
little from above. At the front end of the 
abdomen is a spot larger below than above, figs. 20 21 22. Geo 
where the skin is thicker and harder and 
browner in color than the rest. The cephalo- 
thorax is dark brown or black, as are also 
the femora of all the legs and of the palpi. 
The ends of the third and fourth legs are a 
lighter brown and the ends of the first and second legs and 
palpi light yellow. The abdomen is deep black except a bright 
red spot at the hinder end, which varies in size, is sometimes 
broken into several spots, or is sometimes wanting altogether. 
The eyes (fig. 20) are near together, the upper row curved 




trecha crocata. 
22, female enlarged 
four times. 20, eyes 
seen from in front. 
21, maxillae, labium, 
and ends of mandi- 
bles from below. 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



down at the ends. The maxillae are straight, with the sides 
nearly parallel, and the labium is shorter than wide. The 
males are usually smaller than the females and have the red 
spot larger. These spiders live among stones in dry open 
places. They are easily alarmed and move very rapidly. The 
flat, parchment-like cocoons found on stones are probably made 
by this species. 

Geotrecha bivittata. — The same size as G. crocata but much 
lighter colored, and with two white stripes across the abdomen 
(fig. 23). The cephalothorax is a little narrower behind than 

it is in crocata. Its color varies from 
orange to dark brown. The femora of 
all the legs are striped lengthwise with 
brown and yellow. The hind legs are 
brown, with a little yellow on the upper 
side of the patella and tibia. The other 
legs are yellow, sometimes with brown 
stripes on the under side. The white 
marks on the abdomen extend under- 
neath halfway to the middle line. The 
sternum and under side are light brown. 
It lives under leaves at all seasons. 

»^ Micaria longipes or aurata. — A quarter of an inch long or less, 
and resembling an ant both in size and color (fig. 28). The 
cephalothorax is twice as long as wide, and only a little widened 
in the middle. It is highest in the middle, curving downward 
at both ends. The front row of eyes (fig. 25) is nearly straight 
and the upper row curved, with the middle eyes highest and 
the eyes all farther apart than in the lower row. The abdo- 
men is one-half longer than the cephalothorax and about as 
wide, blunt at both ends and drawn in a little at the sides and 
above at a point a third of its length from the front. The 
legs are long and slender, the fourth pair longest. The colors 





Fig. 



Fig. 24. 



Geotrecha bivittata. — Upper 
and under views of female 
enlarged four times. 



THE DRASSID^ 




are light yellow brown, with gray hairs and scales which on 

the abdomen have green and red metallic reflections. The 

legs are darker from before backward, 

the front pair all light yellow except 

the femur, and the third and fourth 

pairs with longitudinal brown stripes 

that nearly cover the tarsal joints. The 

abdomen has a pair of transverse white 

stripes near the constricted part and 

another pair less distinct at the front 

end. The under side is as dark as the 

upper. The white markings 'extend underneath 

halfway to the middle line. The maxillae are nearlv 

straight on the outer edge and a little widened 

toward each other at the ends. The labium is 

narrowed at the end and a little longer than 

wide (fig. 26). 

There is an orange-colored Micaria from Long 
Island, N.Y., and farther south (probably what is 
described by Hentz under the name Herpyllus 
aiwatus), that seems to belong to this species 
(fig. 27). Its size and markings are the same, and 
the epigynum is like that of longipes. The cepha- 
lothorax, abdomen, and femora of all the legs are 
bright orange color, with brilliant yellow and 
green reflections. The spinnerets are FiGs.25,26, 27, 28. Micaria 
black, and there are five or six transverse 
black marks on the hinder half of the 
abdomen and some irregular black spots 
around the white bands. x r- , j 

cana aurata. Lolored 

i / Phrurolithus alarius, — A small and very orange, with black and 

. , 1 1 -xi 1 u'«-^ white markings. 

active spider marked with gray and white 

and having on the abdomen iridescent green scales (fig. 31). 




longipes. — 28, Male en- 
larged four times. 25, eyes 
seen from in front. 26, 
maxilla;, labium, and ends 
of mandibles from below. 
27, Southern variety, Mi- 



lO 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



The cephalothorax is nearly as wide behind as it is long. The 
head is about half as wide as the thorax. The eyes (fig. 30) 
are large for so small a spider, and cover more than half 

the width of the head. The 






30 





middle eyes of the upper 
row are oval and turned ob- 
liquely, diverging toward the 
front. The labium is short 
and the maxillae straight, as 
in Agroeca and Anyphsena, 
but wider at the base (fig. 32). 
The legs are long and slen- 
der, except the tibia and metatarsus of the 
first and second pairs, which are twice as 
thick as the same joints of the other legs 
and have on the under side two rows of 
strong spines (fig. 29). The cephalothorax 
is light yellowish, with a black line on the 
edge each side, and two light gray stripes. 
The abdomen is gray, with transverse white 
markings that vary greatly in size and shape 
in different individuals. The abdomen is 
covered with scales that change from grayish 
green to pink with the motions of the spider. 
The legs are pale, except the patella and 
tibia of the first pair, which are black or 
dark gray, with the tip of the tibia white. 
The tibia and patella of the second pair are 
marked with lighter gray in the same way. 
eight times. 29, one of It Hvcs amoHg stoncs in opcn ground, and 

the front legs to show , ,. . , j_ -ct. 

spines. 30, eyes from ruus short distanccs With great swittness. 
in front. 32, maxiiire When Still it Hcs closc to a stouc, with the 

labium, and ends of 

mandibles. tibiae drawn up over the back. 




Figs. 29, 30, 31, 32. Phru- 
rolithus alarius. — ^i. 
female in a natural posi- 
tion, with legs drawn up 
over the back, enlarged 



THE DliASSIDyE 



II 



°o00o'' 





Agroeca pratensis. — A little light-colored spicier, resembling 
the next species, AnypJicBua incerta. It is about a fifth of an inch 
long. The cephalothorax is wide behind and low in front and 
highest near the dorsal groove. The head is contracted in 
front of the legs more than it is in 
incerta. The front row of eyes is 
nearly straight, the middle pair only ^3 

a little the higher (fig. 33). The upper row 
is longer and more curved, with all the eyes 
about the same distance apart, the middle 
pair not so much separated as in incerta. 
The abdomen is widest behind, but not as 
wide as in incej'ta. The spinnerets are two- 
jointed, as in Anyphaena. The legs are long, 
the fourth pair longest, and are a little thicker 
than those of incerta. The coxae of the hind 
legs almost touch, and the sternum is short 
and nearly round (fig. 36). The labium is 
short and the maxillae straight, as in Any- 
phaena. The cephalothorax, legs, and mouth 
parts are light brownish yellow. The cephalo- 
thorax has a fine dark line on each side and 
two broken longitudinal stripes made up of 
gray marks radiating from the dorsal groove. 
The abdomen has two rows of gray oblique 
markings on a light ground. The general 
appearance is like a small Lycosa. It lives 
among leaves and short grass. There is 
little difference between male and female. 

Anyphaena incerta. — About a fifth of an inch long, light yellow, 
with gray markings. The cephalothorax is three-quarters as 
wide as long, rounded at the sides and highest in the middle. 
The front of the head is very low, so that the eyes nearly. 




Figs. 33, 34, 35, 36. 
Agrceca pratensis. — 33, 
eyes from in front. 34, 
maxilla", labium, and 
ends of mandibles. 35, 
back of female en- 
larged four times. 36, 
under side of female 
as far back as the 
epigynum. 



12 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



touch the mandibles. The front row of eyes is nearly straight. 
The upper row is longer and more curved, with the middle eyes 

highest and farthest apart (fig. 39). 

The abdomen is large in the female, 

widest behind the middle, and a little 

pointed behind. The labium is not 

longer than wide, and the maxillae are 

straight, with the sides parallel. The 

sternum is oval, not so short and wide 

as in pratcnsis. The opening of the 

'^ ^ air-tubes is halfway between the epigy- 

num and spinnerets (fig. 38), instead of 

just in front of the spinnerets, as it is in 

most spiders. The spinnerets are two-jointed. 

The legs are slender and tapering, the fourth 

longest in females and the first in males. The 

cephalothorax has two longitudinal broken 

gray bands. The abdomen has a double row 

of spots in the middle and oblique rows of 

smaller spots each side. The oblique lines 

of spots extend under the abdomen halfway 

to the middle. 

Anyphaena calcarata. — The same size and 
color as A. iiicerta, with longer legs. The 
markings are the same in both species. 
The plainest difference between the females 
is in the epigynum, the hard and dark parts 
of which are larger and longer in incerta. 
Another slight difference is in the shape 
of the sternum, which in calcarata extends 
farther between the hind legs (fig. 42). In 
incerta it is more pointed at the hinder end 
and shorter (fig. 38). The difference between 




41 

Figs. 37, 38, 39, 40, 41. 
Anyphaena incerta. — 

37, palpus of male. 

38, under side of fe- 
male as far forward as 
end of sternum. 39, 
eyes from in front. 
40, female enlarged 
four times. 41, max- 
illae, labium, and ends 
of mandibles. 



THE DRASSID/E 



13 




the length of the legs in the 
two species, which is slight 
in the females, is greater in 
the males, the legs of calca- 
rata being the longer. The 
palpi of the males differ con- 
siderably. In hiccTta (fig. 
37) the tibia of the palpus 
has a large process on the 
outer side close to the tarsus and extending 
along its edge a third of its length. In 
calcarata (fig. 43) the corresponding process 
is small and does not lap over the tarsus. 
The coxae of the third and fourth legs of 
the male calcarata have little processes on 
the under side (fig. 42), one on the fourth 
and two on the third. These do not occur 
in inccrta. It lives on plants like salta- 
b Hilda (p. 14). 

Anyphaena rubra. — Larger than the other 
species, with the legs shorter. The female 
is about a third of an inch long, with the 
abdomen longer and narrower than in inccrta 
or saltabiinda. The opening of the air-tubes 
(fig. 45) is farther forward than usual, twice 
as far from the spinnerets as from the epigy- 
num. The legs are comparatively short, 
the longest, the fourth, being about as long 
as the body. The maxillae are a little 
widened at the end. The sternum is widest 
at the second legs and narrows to a point 
behind. The head is a little wider than 
usual, and the whole appearance more like 



Figs. 42, 43. Anyphaena 
calcarata. — 42, under 
side of cephalothorax of 
female. 43, palpus of 
male. 





Figs. 44, 45. Anyphaena 
rubra. — ■ 44, female with- 
out the legs, enlarged 
four times. 45, under 
side of abdomen, show- 
ing position of air-tubes. 



14 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Clubiona than the other species. The color is the usual pale 
yellow, a little brownish on the head and legs, and with two 
longitudinal stripes on the cephalothorax. The abdomen is 
nearly white, with two stripes made up of gray spots, and 
scattered spots at the sides. The spots turn red in alcohol. 
/ Anyphasna saltabunda. — A pale short spi- 
der, with long and slender legs (fig. 46). 
The body is an eighth to a sixth of an inch 
long. The abdomen is oval, two-thirds as 
wide as long, and nearly as high as it 
is wide. The cephalothorax is three- 
fourths as wide as long, widest across 
the dorsal groove and narrowing grad- 
ually to half as wide in front. The 
eyes of the upper row are twice as 
large as those of the front row. The 
first legs are longest in both sexes, 
measuring in the female over twice 
the length of the body and in the 
males three times. The spines are 
very long on the legs and palpi but 
only a little darker in color. The 
general color is pale yellow or white, 
with two broken gray stripes on the cepha- 
lothorax and two middle and several lateral 
rows of light gray spots on the abdomen. 
The spinnerets are slender and two-jointed. The opening of 
the air-tubes is halfway between the spinnerets and the 
epigynum. The palpi of the male (fig. 47) are long and 
slender, and the tibia is slightly curved and has a large thin 
process on the outer side. 




Figs. 46, 47. Any- 
phaena saltabunda. 
— 46, female en- 
larged six times. 
47, palpus of male. 



THE DRASSID^ 



15 



THE GENUS CLUBIONA 



These spiders are all pale and most of them without mark- 
ings. The eyes are close to the front edge of the head and 
cover more than half its width (figs. 50, 54, 56). The upper 
row is longer and the eyes .larger and the middle pair farthest 
apart. The distance between 
this pair varies according to the 
species. In crassipalpis and 
canadensis it is little more than 
that between the middle and 
lateral eyes, while in rubra it 
is nearly twice as great. The 
mandibles of the females are 
swelled at the base in front, 
and this swelling is greatest in 
canadensis (fig. 55). The man- 
dibles of the males are longer 
and are shaped in a variety of 
ways according to the species. 
The shape of the epigynum is 
indistinct and variable, and fe- 
males of different species are 
difficult to distinguish. The 
females of ornata and exccpta 
are known by their markings 
and those of rubra by their size 
and resemblance to the male. 
The females of crassipalpis and tibialis are doubtful. The palpal 
organs and male palpi are of great variety and distinguish the 
males of all species without much difficulty. 

The Clubionas live in flat tubes of silk on leaves of low 
plants in summer and under bark and stones at all seasons. 




Fig. 48. Female Clubiona crassipalpis, 
enlarged four times. 



i6 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Clubiona crassipalpis, — A quarter of an inch long and pale, 
without markings. The head is sometimes a little darker than 

the rest of the body, and the man- 
dibles and ends of the male palpi 
are always darker. The eyes of the 
upper row are almost equidistant, 
the middle pair only a little farther 
apart than they are from the lateral 
eyes. The mandibles of the male 
(figs. 49, 50) are elongated as usual, 
narrowed toward the end, and thickened in 
front just above the mid- 
dle. On the outer side 
in front is a sharp ridge 
that extends from the 
base of the claw halfway 
up the mandible. The 
inner edges of the man- 
dibles are thin and in- 
clined backward toward 
the mouth, but there is 
no line or ridge between 
the thick and thin por- 
tions as in some other 
species. The palpi of the 
male (fig. 51) have the 
patella and tibia both 
short. The tibia is wid- 
ened on the outer side 
and laps over the tarsus, figs. 53, 54. ciubiona 
extending in a blunt hook for half its length. pav''so7n"ie'show^ 
Clubiona tibialis. — Quarter of an inch long, '"g large tibia. 54, 

"^ ... head and mandibles 

the same size and color as crassipalpis, with of male. 





Figs. 49, 50, 51, 52. Clu- 
biona crassipalpis. — 49, 
head and mandibles of 
male from the left side. 

50, head and mandibles 
of male from in front. 

51, palpus of male. 52, 
maxillae, labium, and 
ends of mandibles. 




THE DRASSID/E 



17 



no markings and no dark color except on the mandibles and 
male palpi. The middle eyes are a little farther apart than 
in crassipalpis. The male mandibles 
(fig. 54) are narrower than in crassi- 
palpis and without the sharp ridge on 
the outer side, but on the inside they 
are sharply hollowed out with a ridge 
between the thick outer and thin inner 
portions. The male palpi (fig. 53) have 
the patella about as long as wide, as it 
is in crassipalpis and canadensis, but the 
tibia is very large, with a hook in the 
usual place on the outer side and a 
much larger process, which extends forward over 
the tarsus. The tarsus is long and thickened 
in the middle where it rests against the process 
of the tibia. 

Clubiona canadensis. — Quarter of an inch long and 
without markings. The upper eyes are nearly 
equidistant, as they are in crassipalpis, but 
the leers and palpi are shorter. The male man- FiGs.55,56, 57. ciubi 

CI i- i- ^ Qfia canadensis. — 55 

dibles (fig. 56) are much like those of crassi- head of female, show 
palpis, but have not so sharp a ridge on the 
outer side. The male palpi (fig. 57) have the 
patella longer than wide and the tibia wider 
than long, with two processes on the outer side. The upper 
tibial process is a simple point extending along the outer side 
of the tarsus for quarter of its length. The under process is 
twice as long, with a projecting corner at its base and running 
forward to a sharp point, with a round notch halfway between 
the point and base. The female has the head wider and the 
mandibles very much swelled in front at the base (fig. 55). 
The fourth leg is longest and about as long as the body. 




ing the swelled man- 
dibles. 56, head and 
mandibles of male. 
57, palpus of male. 



i8 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




59 

Figs. 58, 59. Clubiona rubra. — 
58, front of head and mandibles 
of male. 59. palpus of male. 



Clubiona rubra. — Smaller than the other species, a sixth to a 
fifth of an inch long. Cephalothorax light yellow brown, darker 

toward the front. Abdomen pale in 
front and darkened with brownish red 
at the sides and behind and along the 
middle of the back. The hind middle 
eyes are nearly twice as far apart as 
they are from the lateral eyes. The 
fourth legs are 
longest in both 
sexes, and there 
islittledifference 
in the length of 
the legs of the 
two sexes. The mandibles of the female 
are but little swelled in front, not much 
more than those of the male, and the male 
mandibles (fig. 58) are only a little nar- 
rowed at the ends. The male palpi (fig. 59) 
have the tibia very much widened on the 
outer side, with a short tooth in the middle 
and two larger short processes on the outer 
side. The palpal organ has a large dark- 
colored process in the middle. The epigy- 
num is pointed behind, with a notch in the 
middle and two black spots under the skin 
toward the front of the abdomen. 

Clubiona omata. — This is one of the few 
Clubionas that have markings on the abdo- 
men. The general color is pale as usual, 
but the abdomen has a dark stripe in the middle, broken into 
spots behind and bordered by pale yellow. At the sides are 
oblique dark and light transverse markings. These marks are 




62 

Figs. 60, 61, 62. Clubiona 
ornata. — 60, back of fe- 
male enlarged four times 
to show markings. 61, 
palpus of male. 62, front 
of head and mandibles of 
male. 



THE DRASSID^ 



19 




of different sizes in different individuals and connected in 

different ways. The length is from a third to half an inch. 

The abdomen is wide across the middle and more pointed behind 

than in most species. The front middle eyes are about as far 

apart as in tibialis and nearer than in rubra. The mandibles 

are not much swelled in front. The legs of the male are longer 

than those of the female, with the first 

pair longest, while in the female the '^oOOo' 

fourth pair is longest. The male man- \^ 

dibles (fig. 62) are narrow at the end and 

hollowed on the inner edges as in tibialis, 

with a sharp ridge between the thick 

and the thin portions. The male palpi 

(fig. 61) have two processes on the outer 

side of the tibia longer than in rubra 

and shorter than in caiiadciisis. The tibia 

is a little widened toward the end and 

curved outward. 

Clubiona excepta. — A third of an inch 
long and with very distinct gray mark- 
ings on the abdomen. The cephalotho- 
rax is light yellow brown, and the legs are more deeply 
colored with yellow than in most species. The abdomen 
is white, with sometimes a yellow mark on the front of ^5 
the abdomen, and on the hinder half of the abdomen is a 
middle row of gray spots and a row of larger transverse spots 
on each side. The fourth legs are longest in both sexes. The 
male palpi have the tibia longer than usual and patella and 
tibia about the same length. The tibia has a small process 
with two teeth (fig. 64). The tarsus is oval and narrow and 
the palpal organ small. 

Trachelas ruber. — One-third of an inch long, with the cephalo- 
thorax short and wide like Clubiona, and the deep orange-brown 



Figs. 63, 64, 65. Clu- 
biona excepta. — 
6j, front of head 
and mandibles of 
male. 64, palpus 
of male. 65, back 
of female enlarged 
four times to show 
markings. 




20 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



color of Dysdera. The cephalothorax is almost as wide as long, 
and widest opposite the second legs. The head is three- 
quarters as wide as the thorax and as 
high in the middle halfway between 
the eyes and the dorsal 
groove. The front of 
the head is low, as in 
Clubiona. The front 

row of eyes is a 

little curved, so 

that the middle 

pair are half 

their diameter 

higher than the 

lateral. The 

upper row is 

much longer 

and the lateral 

eyes are farther 

from the mid- 
dle than these 

are from each 

other. The 
labium and maxillse are like those of FiGs.67,68,69. chi- 

_, , . , , , . , - racanthium viri- 

Clubiona and the palpi very slender. 
The first pair of legs are thicker than 
the others and as long as the fourth. 
The second pair are also somewhat 
thickened. The legs are orange 
brown, darkest on the front pair. The cephalo- 
thorax is dark brown and finely roughened over the 
whole surface, without hairs except in front. The abdomen is 
pale, with no markings except over the dorsal vessel and the 




Fig. 66. Tra- 
chelas ruber, 
enlarged four 
times. 




de. — 67, female 
enlarged four 
times. 68, eyes 
from in front. 
69, maxillae, labi- 
um, and mandi- 
bles from below. 



o Q 
000c 




THE BRASS I D^ 21 

muscular spots. Some light-colored individuals have all the 
colors paler. Under stones and leaves. 

Chiracanthium viride. — This has the color and general appear- 
ance of the Clubionas, but the legs are longer and the first legs 
are considerably longer than the fourth. The body is shorter 
and the abdomen is wider and thicker in the middle. The 
female (fig. ^y) is a third of an inch long and the front legs 
two-fifths of an inch. The eyes (fig. 68) are arranged as in 
Clubiona. The maxillae and labium are like those of Clubiona, 
but the sternum is shorter and rounder. The head is but little 
narrowed and the eyes cover almost its whole width. The 
upper spinnerets are longer than the lower and distinctly two- 
jointed. The spines of the legs are small and inconspicuous. 
The color in life is greenish white, the mandibles brown, and 
the stripe over the dorsal vessel darker than the rest of the 
abdomen. 

The male has the front legs nearly three times as long as the 
body, though the other legs are not much longer than in the 
female. The mandibles are also elongated, as in the males of 
Clubiona. The male palpi have the tarsus long, with a pointed 
process that extends backward over the tibia between two 
processes on that joint. 



THE DYSDERID.E 



'' The Dysderidse are a small family of spiders resembling in 
their general appearance the Drassidas, but differing from them 
in several important characters. They have only 
six eyes instead of the usual eight, and they have 
four breathing holes in the front of the abdomen, 
two of them leading to the usual lungs and the 
others to the air-tubes, which in most 
spiders open just in front of the spin- 
nerets. 

Dysdera interrita. — ■ Six eyes close 
together on the front of the 
head. Length half an inch, 
with the abdomen a little 
longer than the cephalothorax. 
The coxae and patellae are un- 
usually long, especially on the 
front legs, and the tarsi are 
unusually short (fig. 70). The 
mandibles are long and inclined 
forward. The maxillae are long, 
a little widened in the middle 
and pointed at the ends. The 
labium is long and narrow, and 
forked at the end (fig. 72). The 
skin around the base of the legs 
is thick and hard, so that the sternum appears to extend between 
them (fig. 72). There are two tracheal openings just behind 

22 




Figs. 70, 71, 72. nv'sdera 
interrita. — 70, enlarged 
four times. 71, head 
and eyes from in front. 
72, under side enlarged 
si.x times. 



THE DYSDERID^ 



23 




the openings of the lungs. The cephalothorax and legs are 
orange brown, darker toward the front. The abdomen is the 
same color, but so pale as to be almost white. 

Ariadne bicolor. — Six eyes in three pairs, the side pairs 
separated by their diameter from the middle pair. The length 
is about a third of an inch, the 
cephalothorax and abdomen about 
the same length. The cephalo- 
thorax is long and the head wide. 
The maxillae are long and narrow. 
The sternum is widest opposite the 
third legs (fig. 74), and ends behind 
in a blunt point. The first, second, 
and third legs are directed forward, 
the first pair longest and stoutest. The 
tibiae of the first and second legs are a little 
thickened in the middle and have four pairs 
of spines on the under side, and the meta- 
tarsus of the same legs eight pairs. The 
hinder pairs of spinnerets are very small. 
The cephalothorax and legs are yellow brown, 
darker toward the front. The abdomen is 
purplish brown, darker in the middle and 
toward the front. In the male the head is 
more narrowed and the front legs longer. 
The front metatarsi are curved at the base 
and have a tooth each side, the inner one 
farthest from the tibia. The palpal organ is outside the tarsal 
joint, as it is in the Mygales. • 




I'iGS. 73, 74. Ariadne bi- 
color. — 73, upper side 
enlarged four times. 
74, under side. 



THE THOMISID^ 

The Thomisidae are generally flat, short, and widened behind, 
and have a sidewise gait and crab-like appearance. The first and 
second legs are often much larger than the third and fourth, 
and all the legs extend sidewise from the thorax and not for- 
ward and backward, as they do in the Drassidas (pp. 1-2 i). The 
feet have two claws and a thick brush of hairs. They are gen- 
erally smooth or covered with very short and fine hair, and often 
have coarser hairs scattered at considerable distances from each 
other over the back. The eyes are small and in two slightly 
curved rows, the upper one longest and often much longer than 
the front row. The mandibles are small and narrowed toward 
the end. The maxillae are narrow at the end and slant inward. 
Most of the species belong to the three following genera : 

Xysticus (p. 30) is flat, with short legs, and marked with gray 
and brown, like bark and stones. 

Misumena (p. 25) is white or brightly colored. The first and 
second legs are much longer than the third and fourth, and 
there is great difference between the sexes, the females being 
large and light colored, while the males are small, and yellow 
or green, with red and brown markings. 

Philodromus (p. 35) is generally small, with long slender 
legs, the second pair longest. The colors are generally light 
gray and brown, sometimes with iridescent scales. 

Besides the larger genera are several other spiders belonging 
to this family. Tinar2is caiidatits (p. 38) resembles Philodro- 
mus in color and outline, but has besides the caudate abdomen 
a very different head and thorax, and the hind legs much shorter 

24 



THE THOMISID.'E 



25 



than the first and second. Ebo latitJiorax (p. 38) is a small Philo- 
dromus, with a wide body and exaggerated second legs. T/iajia- 
tus lycosoidcs (p. 40) is like a stout Philodromus, with rough hairs 
and markings, resembling some Lycosidas. TihcUns duttonii 
(p. 39) is a long straw-colored spider, resembling Philodromus 
in its feet and head, but having a long slender abdomen, with 
two black spots. 



THE GENUS MISUMENA 

The Misumenas are the most conspicuous spiders of their 
family, and are among the few that are popularly noticed. 
They grow to a large size and are white or brightly colored, 
and live in open places 
on flowers. The males 
and females differ widely. 
The males mature early 
and remain small, and are 
marked with a variety of 
colors in spots and bands, 
W|hile the females grow 
several times as large, 
lose in great part their 
markings, and become 
white or yellow. In both 
sexes the two front pairs 
of legs are much longer 
than the two hinder pairs, 
and often differently col- 
ored. In the young the 
colors are variable and there is less difference between the 
sexes. The Misumenas live on plants, among the flowers, 
especially on large flat clusters, like those of carrot and 




^:- 1'^ Ji^^ ' 



Fig. 7v Misumena aleatoiia. — Natural size, 
among flowers of thoroughwort, holding a fly 
in her mouth. 



26 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



thoroughwort. They stand among the flowers, holding by the 
hind legs, with the front legs extended or bent in stiff and 
awkward positions, and wait for insects to alight on the flowers 
within their reach. Whether spiders prefer flowers colored 
like themselves is an unsettled question ; at any rate, Misu- 
menas of all colors and both sexes have been found on white 

flowers. Occasionally individuals are 
found on flowers of exactly the same 
color as themselves ; for 
example, deep yellow J/. 
aleatoria on the wild indigo, 
Baptisia tinctoria, and the 
reddish J/, aspcrata on the 
flowers of sorrel, Rumcx 
acctosella. The adult fe- 
males of vatia and aleatoria 
are easily mistaken for 
each other. Both vary in 
color from white to deep 
yellow, and grow to a large 
size, but they can be dis- 
tinguished by the differ- 

larged four times, q^^q J^ the shapC of the 
78, male enlarged four _ 

times. head. Aspcrata is perhaps 

the most common species. 
The female seldom grows as large as the others, and does 
not lose entirely the red markings of the abdomen and legs. 
The scattered stiff hairs also distinguish it from the others. 
The males of the different species are distinct enough one 
from the other, though they differ widely from the females. The 
shape of the head and the markings around the eyes are much 
the same in both sexes, and by these males and females of the 
same species may be recognized. 

f 




THE THOMISID^ 



27 



Misumena vatia is the largest species and lives all over this 
country and Europe. It is sometimes half an inch long, and 
the first legs spread an inch and a half (fig. "jy). It is white, with 
sometimes a crimson spot on each side of the abdomen and 
another on the front of the head between the upper eyes. The 
sides of the thorax are a little darkened with yellow or brown, 
which extends around the head to a 
distinct opaque white spot under 
and between the eyes (fig. 'j6). 
This white spot widens below over 
the mandibles and above under the 
eyes and around the eyes of the 
upper row. The shape of this mark 
and the greater height of the head 
distinguish this species from alca- 
toria (figs. 79, 80). On the back of 
the thorax is also a distinct opaque 
white spot. The first and second 
legs have usually a light brown 
mark on the upper side, but this 
is sometimes absent. 

The male (fig. 78) is only a quar- 
ter or a third as long as the adult 
female. The front legs are pro- 
portionally longer than in the fe- 
male, and the abdomen smaller and 
more pointed behind. The males 
are strongly marked with reddish brown on a light ground. 
The thorax is dark at the sides, while the front of the head 
is white like that of the female. 

Misumena aleatoria. — The female of this species grows nearly 
as large as vatia, and in some places is much more com- 
mon. It is white or yellow, but does not have the crimson 




Figs. 79, 80. Si, 
82. Misumena 
aleatoria. — 
79, front of head anc 
eyes. 80, female en- 
larged four times. 
81, female with dark 
markings. 82, male 
enlarged four times. 



28 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



markings at the sides of the abdomen or between the eyes. 
The head (fig. 79) is rounder than in vatia and much lower in 
front, and there is a narrow white stripe under the eyes that 
divides at the sides, one branch passing around over the man- 
dibles and the other close under the eyes. The sides of the 
cephalothorax are gray or green. The abdo- 
men usually has no markings except a little 
gray color in the middle, but sometimes it 
has two rows of dark brown spots (fig. 81), 
and in such individuals the legs are also 
marked with brown at the ends of the joints. 
The males are very small and strikingly col- 
ored (fig. 82). The two front pairs of legs 
are brown, the cephalothorax green, and the 
abdomen yellow. The shape of the head 
and the white under the eyes are the same 
as in the female. 

Misumena asperata. — The males and fe- 
males of this spider are more alike than in 
vatia and alcatoria. The adult females are 
always pale and sometimes white, but seldom 
lose entirely the reddish bands around the 
legs. Both sexes are covered with short 
stiff hairs about their length apart all over 
84, male enlarged four the Upper part of the body and legs. The 
usual color is pale yellow, with dull red 
markings. The thorax is reddish at the sides. The abdomen 
has two red bands or rows of spots on the hinder half, meeting 
behind. In front are a middle pair of spots and two side bands 
that spread apart in the middle and meet again at the spin- 
nerets. The tibia and tarsus of the front legs are marked with 
a narrow red ring at the base and a wider ring near the end of 
each joint. The female is a quarter of an inch long and the 




Figs. 83, 84. Misumena 
asperata. — 83, female 
enlarged four times. 



THE THOMISID/E 



29 



male about half that length. The markings of the male are 
like those of the female, but the spots are larger and more 
deeply colored. The male palpi are larger than in the other 
species. 

The male J/, spinosa of Georgia resembles aspcrata, but the 
legs are much longer and the ends of the palpi smaller. 

Synema parvula. — A common species in the South. Length 
about one-eighth of an inch. The thorax is as wide as long, 



The abdomen is as 
middle, and a little 



round and high in the middle, 
wide as long, widest across the 
pointed behind. The third and 
fourth legs are not more than 
two-thirds as long as the first 
and second, and lighter colored. 
The thorax is orange-colored, a 
little darker at the sides, and 
with a dark brown line on the 
edges over the legs. There are 
light rings around the eyes. 
The abdomen is white or light 
yellow in front, and has a wide 
black or brown band across the 
hinder half, not reaching back 
to the spinnerets, and sometimes partly divided by a notch in 
front. On the front half of the abdomen are some small dark 
spots and usually several opaque white marks. On the under 
side of the abdomen there is a dark band on each side extend- 
ing back to and partly surrounding the spinnerets. The front 
legs are orange brown, with the femora darker on the front and 
rear edges. The other joints are a little darker at the ends. 
The males are a little smaller and darker in color, but differ 
little from the females. 




Figs. 85, 86. Synema 
parvula. — Enlarged 
eight times. 85, up- 
per side. 86, under 
side. 



30 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



THE GENUS XYSTICUS 



In these spiders the general appearance is crab-like. The 
abdomen is not much larger than the thorax, and both are flat 
and wide. The first and second legs are a third longer than 
the third and fourth. The colors are usually 
various shades of brown and gray, in small 
i;pots and bands. On the upper side of each 
leg is usually a light line, with dark 
lines on each side of it. The gait is 
often sidewise, the legs kept close 
to the ground, so that the spider can 
move in a narrow crack. They live 
under stones and bark and leaves, 
and some, like trignttatus, on low 
plants. The males have longer legs 
and smaller abdomen and all the dark 
markings larger and darker than the 
females. In triguttatiis there is great 
difference between the sexes, but in 
most species very little, as in liniba- 
tiis and stomacJiosus. The head is 
generally low, and the four middle 
eyes form a rectangle a little wider 
than high (fig. 97). 

Xysticus stomachosus. — A middle- 
sized and light-colored species, with 
gray markings on a light ground, 
the markings most distinct on the hinder legs and abdomen. 
The middle of the thorax is lighter than the sides, and there 
is a small dark spot in the middle and a larger one on each 
side toward the hinder end (figs. 87, 88). The third and fourth 
legs have a distinct dark spot at the ends of femur, patella, and 




Figs. 87, 88. Xysticus stomacho- 
sus. — 87, female. 88, male. 
Both enlarged four times. 



THE THOMISID^ 



31 



tibia. The abdomen is light, with a few small spots at the 
front end and three pairs of dark transverse bands on the hinder 
half. The hairs are short and fine. The male has longer legs 
and is marked in the same way, with 
the spots on the abdomen larger and 
extended farther forward, 

Xysticus limbatus. — This, is one of 
the largest species, the females reach- 
ing a length of a third to half an inch it 
(figs. 89, 90). The thorax is one- ■ "^ 
eighth of an inch wide and nearly as 
long. The abdomen is a little wider 
at the hinder end. The legs are short, 
the longest about half an inch in 
length. The whole body is hairy. 
The color is brown, the markings 
dark on a light ground, best shown 
by the figures. The middle of the 
head and thorax is more fully 
covered by the dark markings than Vn; 
in other species. There is great ^' 
variation in the color, and young 
spiders are usually lighter than 
adults. Adult males and females in June 
and July. 

Xysticus gulosus. — This is a very distinct 
species and less variable in markings than 
lunbatus and stomacJiosns. The color is 
brown or gray, with indistinct darker mark- 
ings (figs. 91, 92). The whole body is 

covered with fine brown spots and has at the hinder end of the 
thorax and on the legs traces of the same markings that show 
more distinctly in stomachosus. There are a few transverse 




i'lGS. 89, 90. Xys- 
ticus limbatus. — 
89, female. 90, 
male. Both en- 
larged four times. 



32 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



dark lines on the hinder half of the abdomen and less distinct 
longitudinal lines at the sides of the front half. 

The male is a fourth smaller than the female, with 
a smaller abdomen and more slender legs, but the 
same colors and markings. It is usually found under 
bark or stones which it closely resem- 
bles in color. 

Xysticus nervosus. — This is a pale 
species, the females of which are nearly 
as large as liuibatus. The color is 
light brownish 
yellow, with 
small spots of 
lighter and 
darker color scattered all 
over the body, and there 
are traces of the mark- 
ings which are more 
distinct in other 
species (figs. 93, 94). 
On the hinder half of 
the abdomen are 
three or four pairs of 
Figs. 91, 92. Xysticus very indistinct trans- 

gulosus. — 91, female. 

92, male. Both en- versc markings. The 

larged four times. i i i •, i 

* legs are marked with 

irregular dark and light spots, without 
any distinct rings or markings, and the 
first and second pairs are darker than 
the others. In the male the first and 
second legs are twice as long as the 
third and longer and more slender than in the other species 
It lives on fences and under bark. 





Figs. 93, 94. Xj'sticus nervosus. 
— 93, female. 94. male. Both 
enlarged four times. 



THE THOMISID/E 



33 



Xysticus triguttatus. — This is a small and very common 

spider living on grass and low bushes. The female is about a 

fifth of an inch long and the male as large but with a smaller 
abdomen. The difference in the color of the sexes 
is so great that they may easily be 
mistaken for different species. The 
females (fig. 95) are straw-colored, 
the abdomen almost white, and the 
thorax and legs brownish yellow. 
There are three black spots at the 
back of the thorax and indistinct 
darker bands at the sides. On the 
abdomen are two black spots near 
the front end and three pairs of 
broken transverse stripes behind. 
The male 
{fig. 96) has 
the femora of 
the two front 
legs dark 
brown, the 
rest like the 

female or a little darker. The thorax is 

dark brown, except in the middle, where 

it is a little lighter, as in the female. The 

abdomen of the male is strongly marked 

with transverse black and white stripes, 

irregular toward the front end. 

Xysticus quadrilineatus. — Quarter of an F1G.9S. Xysticus quadriiine- 

inch long, with the thorax a tenth of an atus, enlarged four times. 

inch wide and the head unusually wide in front. The color is 
light yellow, with light brown markings and black spots. The 
cephalothorax has four narrow brown stripes, one on each side 




Fk;s. 95, 96, 97. Xysticus triguttatus. 
— 95, female. 96, male. Both en- 
larged four times. 97, front of head 
much enlarged to show eyes and 
mandibles. 




34 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



close to the edge and the others running back from the lateral 
eyes (fig. 98) ; there are also two fine brown lines sometimes 
extending from the middle eyes to the dorsal groove, but usually 
broken in the middle. There is a brown spot just behind the 
dorsal groove and two others in the middle of the cephalothorax. 
On the abdomen there are two black spots at the front 
two in the middle and two near the hind end, besides 
several smaller ones along the sides. There 
are four light brown lines across the hinder 
half, each with a white line behind it, and 
at the sides are oblique brown lines alter- 
nating with white. The legs have a distinct 
light line along the dorsal side and are 
covered with fine brown spots without any 
other markings. 

Xysticus (Coriarachne) versicolor. — The 
thorax, abdomen, and legs are all much 
flattened, the head is low, and the upper 
and lower eyes nearer together than in the 
other species. The colors are black and 
gray in irregular spots on a light ground 
(figs. 99, 100). On bark or unpainted 
wood these spiders can hardly be seen. 
Light individuals have black spots on the 
legs at the end of each joint and the usual 
three pairs of dark marks on the abdo- 
men. On the thorax is a white spot in the middle under the 
front of the abdomen. Around this spot and behind the eyes 
is black extending in spots along the sides. In dark females 
and in most males the dark spots are so large that the whole 
spider is nearly black. 

This is a common spider, and a similar species, Coriarachne 
depressa, is equally common in Europe. 




Fi(;s. 99, 100. 
versicolor. - 



Xysticus 
- 99, fe- 



male. 100, male. Both 
enlarged four times. 



THE THOMISID/E 



35 



THE GENUS PHILODROAIUS 



In these spiders there is less difference in length between 
the front and hind legs than in Misumena or Xysticus. The 
legs are long and slender, the 
second pair longest, and the 
body is small and flat, and 
the abdomen pointed behind. 
The colors are brown and gray, 
and the whole body is often 
covered with fine flattened hairs 
that in the males are iridescent. 
P/nlodro7)U(s vulgaris lives usu- 
ally on houses and fences, but 
the other species on plants. 

Philodromus vulgaris. — About 
cjuarter of an inch long, the legs of 
the female spreading over an inch 
and those of the male an inch and 
a quarter (figs. loi, 102). They 
often stand with all the legs extended 
sidewise, flat against a wall or fence 
which they closely resemble in color. 
When freshly molted they are cov- 
ered with fine gray hairs of the color 
of weathered boards, that obscure 
most of the markings. Older spiders 
or those wet with alcohol are covered 
with small gray spots forming a 
stripe in the middle of the front of 
the abdomen and a herringbone 
pattern on the hinder half. The edges of the back of the 
abdomen are dark and form a sharp line against the light 




102 

Figs, ioi, 102, 103, 104. Philodromus 
vulgaris. — loi, male. 102, female. 
Both enlarged four times. 103, tibia 
of the male palpus. 104, one of the 
feet. 



36 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




Fig. 105. Philodromus 
ornatus. — Female en- 
larged six times. 



color of the under surface. The thorax is darker in the 

middle and at the sides in irregular spots of gray. The legs 
are spotted and darker toward the ends of the joints. 
The under side of body and legs is light colored. 

Philodromus ornatus. — This is a small 
species about one-eighth of an inch long. 
The female is very distinctly marked with 
dark brown on a white ground (fig. 105). 
The middle of the thorax is white and the 
sides brown nearly to the edge. The abdo- 
men is white, with a distinct brown band 
on each side from the front more than half 
its length backward. Sometimes there is 
also an indistinct brownish pattern in the 

middle, but this is usually 

absent in adults, and the mid- 
dle is entirely white. Under 

the abdomen the lateral brown 

bands extend backward and 

meet around the spinnerets. 

The abdomen is wider than 

in most species, — nearly as 

wide as it is long across 

the hinder half. The male 

is very differently colored. 

The legs and thorax are 

orange brown, darker at 

the sides of the thorax 

and toward the ends of 

the legs. The abdomen 

is darker brown and 

strongly iridescent with 




Figs. io6, 107. Philodromus lineatus. — 106, female. 
107, male. Both enlarged six times. 



red and green in a bright light. In alcohol it shows indistinctly 

I 



THE THOMISID/E 



37 



the same markings as the female. The legs are longer and 
the abdomen narrower, as in males of other species. 

Philodromus lineatus. — The female of this species is a little 
larger than oniatiis, the brown markings are lighter, and, 
in life or when freshly killed, purplish in the 
lighter parts. The markings are less distinct 
than in oniatns, the brown and white 
running into each other. The abdo- 
men has a brown band each side, 
often broken into several spots, and 
a brown band in the middle extend- 
ing back half its length, behind which 
are several lighter marks (figs. io6, 
107). Between these are several 
oblique lighter markings and rows 
of spots. The legs are light gray, 
darker toward 
the ends of the 
joints. 

Philodromus 
pictus. — 

Female about one-fifth of an inch 
long, the abdomen nearly twice 
as long as the thorax, with the 
widest part across the middle 
farther forward than in most 
species (fig. 1 10). Legs and 
palpi pale yellow with fine brown 
spots. Thorax light yellow in 
the middle and reddish brown at the sides, covered with fine 
spots. Abdomen dull red at the sides and bright yellow in the 
middle, with a dark mark in the middle of the front half and 
two dark marks behind it on the hinder half. The eyes are 





Figs. ioS, 109, no. Philodromus 
pictus. — 1 10, adult female. io(), 
male without the legs. loS, mark- 
ings of the abdomen of a young 
female. All enlarged six times. 



Fig. III. Ebo latithorax, enlarged 
twelve times. 



THE COMMOxN SPIDERS 



surrounded by distinct light rings. In some specimens, usually 
immature, the abdomen has a more distinct yellow and red 
pattern (fig. io8). The male (fig. 109) has the thorax and legs 
darker and the abdomen less bright red and yellow than the 
female, sometimes gray and iridescent. 

Ebo latithorax, — In color and general appearance this resem- 
bles Philodromus, but is at once distinguished by the length 
of the second legs, which are more than twice as long as any 
of the others (fig. iii). The thorax is wider 
and the abdomen is wider than in 
Philodromus. The head is nar- 
row and rounded in front. The 
front middle eyes are largest 
and farthest forward. The 
colors are gray and white, with 
black spots in the darker parts, 
as in Philodromus. The length 
is not much over an eighth of 
an inch and the length of the 
longest legs quarter of an inch. 
Tmarus caudatus. — This spi- 
der is about as large as PJiilo- 
dromns vulgaris and similarly 
colored, but may be distin- 
guished from it by the height of its abdomen and the short tail 
or projection over the spinnerets (fig. 113). The thorax is 
round at the sides and square in front, and the mandibles are 
inclined forward so that they can be seen from above. The 
two rows of eyes are farther apart than in Philodromus, and 
the lateral eyes of both rows are raised on tubercles. Among 
the eyes are several black spots that may be mistaken for 
extra eyes, and there are similar spots on the legs, most 
thickly on the front pairs. On the back of the thorax are 




"3 
Figs. 112, 113. Tmarus caudatus. — 112, 
female enlarged six times. 113, left side 
of the abdomen. 



THE THOAIISID/E 



39 



,.///, 



.#/ 



mm 



114 



radiating white lines. The abdomen is light in front and 
marked behind with two or three pairs of indistinct transverse 
lines (fig. 112). On the under side 
the whole body and legs are pale, 
without spots except a wide middle 
band of gray under the abdomen. 
The third and fourth legs are shorter 
than the first and second, the differ- 
ence being greater than in Philodro- 
mus and less than in Misumena. 

Tibellus duttonii. — This is a very common spider 
on bushes and grass. The body is slender, from 
a third to half an inch long, and a tenth of an 
inch wide (fig. 115). The thorax is an eighth of 
an inch long, widest across the hinder half and 
narrowed toward the front, where it is cut off 
nearly straight over the mandibles. Both rows 
of eyes are strongly curved (fig. 116). The 
hinder row is twice as long as the front row and 
all the eyes larger. The abdomen is straight at 
the sides and a little pointed behind. The color 
is light gray or yellow, with a darker gray line 
in the middle, divided into two 
toward the eyes. At the sides of 
the thorax are other longitudinal 
lines. On the abdomen, one-third 
its length from the hinder end, is 
a pair of small round or oval black 
spots. The legs are light gray, with 
no markings except a few black 
hairs. 

Thanatus coloradensis or lycosoides. — In color and general 
appearance this resembles Philodromus, but is not as flat, and 




Figs. 114, 115, 116. Tibellus 
duttonii. — 115, female en- 
larged four times. 1 14, one 
of the feet. 116, front of 
head, showing eyes and man- 
dibles. 



40 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



the legs are not as long and slender. The general color is 
light gray, with a distinct wide light stripe in the middle of 
the thorax, and a dark brown pointed stripe with white edges 
in the middle of the front half of the abdomen (fig. 117). The 
head is a little longer and higher than in most Thomisidae, and 
the abdomen is a little longer and not so much widened behind. 
The eyes are much as in Philodromus, but larger and nearer 
together. The whole body is hairy, with longer and darker 
hairs scattered among the short ones. The males differ but 
little from the females except in having a little longer hairs 
and darker color. They live on plants and may be mistaken 
for Philodromus (p. 35) or for Ocya/c uiidata (p. 88). 



^- 




Fig. 117. Thanatus coloradensis, enlarged four times. 



THE ATTIDAL 




The Attidae are jumping spiders, many of them brightly 
colored and quick in their movements and living in open places 
among the tops of low plants. They are usually short and 
stout spiders, with a large cephalothorax, which is wide in front, 
where the eyes have a peculiar arrangement in three rows 
(fig. 1 1 8), somewhat as in the Lycosidae, but with the middle 
eyes of the front row much the largest, so that at first sight 
many of them appear to have only two eyes. 
The eyes of the second row are very small and 
hard to see, and those of the third row are far 
back on the head and usually turned a little 
backward. The front legs are usually thicker 
than the others, especially in the males. The 
relative length of the legs is variable, the first 
pair being commonly the longest, but some- 
times the fourth and even in some species the 
third pair. The feet have two claws, with 
many fine teeth and a thick brush of hairs. 
I The Attidae are usually thickly covered with hair or scales, 
often brightly colored or iridescent, and their appearance is 
often entirely changed by rubbing or wetting. 

They walk backward or sidewise as well as forward, and many 
of them jump great distances. They make no cobwebs, but 
some species make silk tubes or bags on plants or under stones 
in which they hide to molt or lay their eggs or to pass the 
winter. There are often great differences in color and mark- 
ings between the sexes, and the males have peculiar bunches 

41 



Fig. 118. Front of 
head of Phidippus 
niystaceus, show- 
ing eyes and man- 
dibles. 



42 



THE COMMOxX SPIDERS 




Fic.. 1 19. Attiis palustris 
enlarged six times. 



of hairs and color spots on the legs and head. At the mating 
time some of the males have peculiar ways of approaching the 
female, holding their legs extended sidewise or over their heads 
in such ways as to display their orna- 
ments. These mating habits have been 
well described by G. W. Peckham, who has 
made a special study of this family, in the 
Occasional Papos of tJic Wisconsin A^atnral 
History Society, of Milwaukee, in 1889. 
This family is largely represented in more 
southern countries, and our species belong 
to a great number of genera most of whose 
members live farther south. 

Attus palustris. — Large females are 
quarter of an inch long, the males a little 
smaller. The cephalothorax is a quarter longer than wide, 
shorter in proportion to its width than in the next species, 
Saitis pnlcx, which it much 
resembles. The two sexes 
resemble each other in mark- 
ings, but the females are lighter 
and browner and the males 
darker and grayer. The cepha- 
lothorax has a narrow white 
middle line, widened opposite 
the dorsal eyes, and a shorter J^ 
white line just below the eyes 
on the sides (fig, 119). The 
edge of the cephalothorax is 
also white. On the abdomen figs. 120, 121. Saitispuiex.— 120, female. 

., e . 1 11 . 121, male. Both enlarged six times. 

the front middle spot is not so 

distinct as in pulex, but in place of it are two white spots. 

Behind these is a large transverse light marking, sometimes 




THE ATTID/E 



43 



broken into two spots. The legs are dark or light gray, without 
any distinct markings. The male palpi are smaller than in 
pulcx, though the males are larger. Pa/itstris lives on plants 
and makes nests among the leaves. 

Saitis pulex. — This is one of the smallest of the family. It 
is about a sixth of an inch long, sometimes even smaller. The 
colors are various 
shades of gray like 
the ground, and 
when still it is 
hard to lind, but 
it is an active 
spider and exposes 
itself by jumping 
in open places. 
The cephalotho- 
rax is half longer 
than wide, longer 
and narrower than 
in Habrocestum 
and Attus. The 
abdomen is usu- 
ally shorter than 
the cephalothorax 
and wider (figs. 
I20, I2i). The 
cephalothorax has a large light-colored triangle in the middle, 
covering the head between the eyes in front and ending in a point 
behind. In alcohol this spot disappears, especially in the males, 
and the head appears black between the eyes and light behind 
and at the sides. The front half of the abdomen has a light 
middle stripe, lightest at the edges and darker gray in the 
middle. Behind this is a transverse white spot nearly the 




Figs. 122, 123. Habrocestum auratum. — 122, male. 
123, female. Roth enlarged eight times. 



44 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



whole width of the abdomen and behind it several smaller light 
markings. In the male these markings are brighter and the 
surrounding dark color blacker than in the females. The legs 
are marked with indefinite spots of dark gray on a lighter 
ground, the contrast stronger in the males. The hairs all over 
the body are short and fine and the spines on the legs distinct, 
especially in the males. 

Habrocestum auratum. — In life this spider is covered with bluish 
white hairs that give it a light gray color and obscure the mark- 
ings. The markings of the male are so much stronger that 
those of both sexes can be best understood by describing the 
male first (fig. 122). The cephalothorax has a white middle 
stripe for a short distance back from the front eyes and two 
distinct white stripes from the lateral front eyes back the whole 

lenofth. In the middle of the 



head are two small white spots 
and just behind them between 
the posterior eyes two curved 
white lines. The latter marks 
show indistinctly in the fe- 
males. Down at the sides of 
the cephalothorax are white 
stripes meeting in front under 
the eyes. The abdomen has a 
white line extending entirely 
around it and a middle stripe 
of varying width. 

The female (fig. 123) has 
only faint indications of the 
markings of the cephalothorax, usually a little lighter color in 
the middle and at the sides below the eyes. The white stripe 
around the abdomen is broken into three pairs of oblique white 
markings and the middle stripe into several spots or pairs of 




Figs. 124, 125. Third and first legs of 
male Habrocestum auratum to show dif- 
ferences between this species and the next. — 
124, third leg. 125, first leg. 



THE ATTID.-E 



45 




spots. There is nothing distinctive in the markings of the 
under side or of the legs except the ornaments of the male. 

The front legs of the male 
(fig. 125) in this species are 
much ornamented. The femur 
has long black hairs on the 
under side. The patella has 
long black hairs beneath, a 
spot of short black hairs on the inner 
side, and a crest of long white hairs mixed 
with shorter black on the upper side. 
The tibia is covered with long black 
hairs except at the tip, where they are 
white. There is nothing peculiar about 
the third leg (fig. 124). The form and 
general appearance can best be understood 
from the figures. 

At the mating time the males, as they 
approach the females, hold the front legs 
extended sidewise and lifted a little from 
the ground, with the tibia nearly horizontal 
and the tarsus turned downward. In this 
position they advance slowly, at the same 
time running rapidly sidewise from one 
side to the other and at short intervals 
jerking the abdomen and the front legs 
slightly upward. They go almost close 
enough to touch the female and then 
quickly retreat. 

Habrocestum peregrinum. — This is about 
the same size as aiiratn^n and looks very 
much like it. The female, at any rate in alcohol, has a more 
distinct light mark in the middle of the cephalothorax, curving 




Figs. 126, 127, 128. Habro- 
cestum peregrinum. — 
128, female enlarged 
six times. 126, third 
leg. 127, first leg. 



46 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



under the eyes and pointing forward in the middle (fig. 128). 
The abdomen has light markings in the middle similar to those 
of aiiratiivi, but those at the sides are less distinct. 

The male has the white stripes in the middle and around the 
abdomen like auratiim. The cephalothorax has the same white 
lines at the sides under the eyes and at the posterior end. It 
does not have a middle white stripe on the head between the 
eyes or two white spots just behind it, as aiiratmn has, but the 
marking behind the eyes is more distinct, as it 
is in the female. The front legs of the male 
(fig. 127) are not ornamented with long hairs 
like auTatnni, but the third legs have a very 
peculiar shape, the patella being wide and flat, 
with a dark spot in the middle of the front side 
(fig. 126). The shape of this joint is best 
shown by the figure. When approaching the 
female he holds up the front legs and draws in 
the third pair so that the ornamented patellae 
show from in front. 

Habrocestum splendens. — A little larger than 
the other species, with the female distinctly 
marked with black and white and the male with 
brilliant red and iridescent scales. The females 
are about a quarter of an inch long, sometimes 
longer, and the males are a little smaller. The cephalothorax of 
the female is covered with brown scales mixed with black hairs. 
Across the middle, just behind the dorsal eyes, is a light band 
that curves behind the eyes and extends forward in the middle. 
The abdomen has a white band in front, one on each side, and 
one in the middle, the rest being deep black. The shape of 
these markings varies and the black parts are often broken 
into two rows of spots. The cephalothorax of the male is 
covered with dark iridescent scales, with blue, green, and purple 




Fig. 129. Habroces- 
tum splendens. — 
Male enlarged 
eight times. 



THE ATTID^ 



47 



reflections. The abdomen is covered with bright red shiny- 
scales mixed with fine black hairs. It is lighter in front and 
at the sides, and in the middle shows indis- 
tinctly through the scales dark markings like 
those of the female (fig. 129). The legs are 
dark like the cephalothorax. 

Mr. Peckham says that when the male 
approaches the female he lifts his abdomen 
into an almost vertical position so that the 
red color shows from in front. Then he 
rises on the tips of his feet and, with the 
front legs off the ground and pointing for- 
ward, he dances back and 
forth sidewise in front of 
her, gradually drawing 
nearer. At inter- 
vals he stops and 
turns his back to 
her, then faces her 
and dances again. 

Neon nellii. — This 
is one of the small- 
est spiders of the family, only a tenth 
of an inch in length. The general 
color is dark gray, darkest toward the head. 
The cephalothorax is high, the highest part 
being a little behind the middle, from which 
it curves downward to the front eyes and 
slopes abruptly backward (fig. 130). The 
eyes are large and prominent, the front row 
nearly straight and as wide as the widest part 
of the cephalothorax. The posterior eyes 
are nearly as large as the front middle pair and are in the 




Figs. 130, 131. Neon 
nellii. — 131, female 
enlarged sixteen 
times. 130, side of 
cephalothorax, show- 
ing position of eyes. 




Fig. 132. Zygoballus bet- 
tini. — Female enlarged 
eight times. 



48 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



middle of the cephalothorax. The abdomen is a little longer 
and wider than the cephalothorax (fig. 131). The cephalothorax 
is smoky gray, darker toward the front and darker in males 
than females. The abdomen is gray, with yellowish markings 
in a herringbone pattern through the middle. Common under 

stones and leaves at all sea- 
sons. 

Zygoballus bettini. — This 
is a very beautifully colored 
spider, having in life spots of 
white hairs and shining scales 
of the color of copper and 
bronze. The cephalothorax 
of both sexes is high and wide 
in the middle and slopes down 
steeply from the posterior 
eyes under the front of the 
abdomen (fig. 132). The top 
of the cephalothorax between 
the eyes is nearly square. 
The posterior eyes are almost 
the full width of the cephalo- 
thorax apart, and the front 
row of eyes is nearly as long. 
The cephalothorax is dark 
brown covered with iridescent 
scales. The legs are pale, 
except the dark femora of the first pair and dark spots on the 
ends of the joints of the fourth pair. In the male all the legs 
are a little darker than in the female and without the spots on 
the fourth leg. The abdomen of the female is light brown, 
marked with white in a row of irregular spots. In the male 
the abdomen is brown, covered with shining scales and with a 




Fig. 



Phidippus multiformis. — Female 
enlarged six times. 



THE ATTID.'E 



49 



white band around the front and two white spots on each side. 
The mandibles of the male are much elongated and bent apart 
at the ends to make room for the long claw. At the inner 
angle is a large tooth, and there is another one of complicated 
shape on the middle of the under side. 

Phidippus multiformis. — This is a very common spider on plants 
throughout the summer. It matures in July, and the males and 
females are so little alike as to be taken 
for different species. The males (fig. 
134) are black, with white and orange 
markings on the abdomen, while the 
females are brown mixed with black, 
white, and yellow scales and small 
white spots. 

The usual length is about a third of 
an inch in both sexes. The cephalo- 
thorax is nearly as broad as long, and 
the abdomen of the female as wide as 
the thorax and a little longer. 

The general color of the adult female 
is yellowish brown, with black and white 
markings (fig. 133). Around the front 
of the abdomen is a white band, and on 
the back are two indistinct longitudinal 
black stripes in which are four pairs of 
white spots. The general brown color 

is produced by a mixture of scales and hairs of various colors. 
The females are most brightly colored just before reaching 
maturity, and then there is a large proportion of yellow and 
orange scales in their covering and the black stripes and white 
spots are more distinct. The hairs and scales are of various 
shapes, the most common being that of slightly flattened hairs. 
The yellow and orange scales are wider and less pointed, and 




Fig. 134. Phidippus mul- 
tiformis. — Male enlarged 
six times. 



50 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



the white spots have short and wide scales. Under the abdo- 
men the color is light gray, with two parallel darker stripes. 
The legs are pale in the middle of the joints and dark toward 
the ends and covered with gray and black hairs. The palpi are 
light yellow. 

In alcohol the orange color disappears almost entirely, the 
black and white markings become less distinct, and all the 
colors browner. The colors of the male (fig. 134) are entirely 
different. The cephalothorax and legs to the end of the tibia 
are black. The palpi are black, with a stripe of white scales on 
the upper side. Around the front end of the abdomen is a 
white stripe ; the sides are bright orange red and the middle 
black. Between the orange and black are three pairs of white 
spots. They make a bag of white silk 
among leaves, in which in the early sum- 
mer a male and female may sometimes 
be found together and in which the female 
later makes a cocoon of eggs. The young 
hatch soon and become half grown before 
winter. 

Phidippus mystaceus. — A stout species 
half an inch long, gray and hairy, in alcohol 
turning brown. The abdomen is light 
gray at the sides and dark in the middle, 
with four pairs of white spots, the third 
pair largest (fig. 135). The cephalothorax 
is round and nearly as wide as long. The 
front row of eyes is little longer than half 
the greatest width of the cephalothorax. 
The cephalothorax is flat on top for almost its whole length 
and in front about twice the diameter of the largest eyes in 
height. The mandibles are large and bright metallic green in 
front (fig. 118). The legs are stout and short, the fourth pair 




Phidippus my- 
enlarged six 



THE ATTID^ 



51 



extending little beyond the spinnerets. The first and fourth 
pairs are of the same length, but the first are twice as thick as 
the fourth. The legs are without markings and darker toward 
the head. The abdomen is longer than the cephalothorax and 
as wide or wider. There is little difference 
between the sexes, the males being only a little 
darker colored and larger in front. Usually 
found under stones in a thick silk nest. 

Phidippus tripunctatus. — Black, with three 
bright white spots on the back of the abdo- 
men (fig. 136). Large females are half an 
inch long and the males a little smaller. 
Though the general color is black, it is modi- 
fied, especially in fresh specimens, by white 
hairs on parts of the body. The joints of the 
legs are grayish in the middle and black 
toward the ends. There are white hairs on 
the front of the head and upper side of the 
palpi and a white band around the front of 
the abdomen, plainest in the males. The 
three large white spots on the abdomen correspond to the 
second and third pairs in niystaccns (fig. 135) and vuiltiforniis 
(fig. 133), and the other pairs, though generally present, are 
small and inconspicuous. On the under side of the abdomen 
are usually two gray stripes. This is a common spider all over 
the country. It lives under stones and sticks and passes the 
winter half grown in a thick silk bag. 

Plexippus puerperus. — Very variable in size, from a third to 
half an inch in length. The females (fig. 137) are pale, light 
yellow, or almost white, with a few black spots, while the 
males (fig. 138) have the cephalothorax and legs brown, some- 
times almost black. In both sexes the mandibles are large 
and the cephalothorax high and flat on the top as far back as 




Fig. 136. Phidippus tri- 
punctatus, enlarged six 
times. 



52 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



the hinder eyes. The front middle eyes nearly touch each 
other. The lateral eyes are half their diameter higher than 
the front ones. The middle eyes are nearer the 
lateral than the dorsal. In the males the front 
eyes are nearly their diameter above the mandibles, 
and below them is a white band and a line of white 
f'Y hairs from the middle of the head 
down to the base of the first legs. 





Fig. 137. Plexippus puer- 
perus. — Female enlarged 
six times. 



The legs are rather 

slender in both sexes 

and long in the males. 

The fourth pair are 

longest in females, and 

in males the first and 

fourth are the same 

length. The markings 
of the abdomen are much alike in both 
sexes, with two light stripes, more definite in 
the males, bordered by a few small black 
spots irregularly arranged. The stem of 
the abdomen is long, and the abdomen and 
thorax appear farther apart than in figs. 138, 139. Plexippus puer- 
many species. In the females the perus.— 138, male enlarged six 

times. 139, front of head of 

cephalothorax is pale, with a few gray male. 




THE ATTID^ 



53 



spots from the middle toward the sides. In the males the legs 
are dark brown except the inner half of the femur of the third 
and fourth, which is light like the abdomen. The male cepha- 
lothorax is dark and has a square white spot between the eyes, 
two white lines pointing up from the third and fourth legs each 
side, and two short white lines under the dorsal eyes. The 
under side of the thorax and legs is dark or light like the upper 
side. The under side 
of the abdomen is 
usually darker in the 
middle and some- 
times has a few black 
spots each side. This 
is a common spider 
in the southern states 
and has been found as 
far south as Brazil. 

Dendryphantes mili- 
taris. — This spider 
resembles in many 
ways the next spe- 
cies, DendrypJiantcs 
cestivalis, but is one- 
half larger and has 
a shorter and wider 
cephalothorax. The general color is brown, covered with gray 
and black hairs. The abdomen of the female is brown, with 
white at the front end and four pairs of oblique white marks in 
the middle and four at the sides (fig. 140). In the male the 
cephalothorax has a white band on each side under the eyes 
and a white band around the abdomen, with a dark middle area 
(fig. 141). The dark parts of the legs and cephalothorax are 
darker than the same parts in the female. The palpi are 




Figs. 140, 141. Dendryphantes niilitaris. — 140, female. 
141, male. Both enlarged six times. 



54 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



slender in both sexes, and in the male the palpal organs are 
small for so large a spider. The mandibles of the male 
are widened at the end and have a strong projection with two 

teeth on the inner corners. 

Dendryphantes aestivalis. — 
One of the most common 
Attidae, on all kinds of bushes 
and small trees, and one of 
the most variable in size and 
\ color. Large females are 
from a fifth to a quarter of 
an inch long, and the males 
are smaller. The females are 
of two varieties, which run 
into each other. The light variety (fig. 
144) has the light parts white or light 
yellow and the dark parts dark brown 
covered with white hairs and scales. 
The cephalothorax is dark brown, thinly 
covered with scales, so that the dark 
color shows between them in places. 
The legs are light yellow and translu- 
cent, indistinctly ringed with brown at 
the base and, near the tip of each joint, 
all covered with greenish white hairs. 
The palpi are light and without rings 
except on the femur and patella. The 
of female. All enlarged abdomcn is brighter yellow than the 

six times. • 1 r • r 1 • 1 i 

thorax, with tour pairs or purplish brown 
spots, the second pair largest, connected with a paler brown mid- 
dle marking. The abdomen has beneath a purple brown 
stripe in the middle and oblique brown marks at the sides. 
Sternum, maxillae, and mandibles light brown. The dark 




Figs. 142, 143, 144. Dendry- 
phantes aestivalis. — 142, 
male. 143, dark variety of 
female. 144, light variety 



THE ATTID/E 



55 



variety (fig. 143) is generally smaller and covered with longer 
hairs and scales. The legs and palpi are more distinctly ringed 
with brown. The dark spots on the abdomen are larger and 
more closely connected, so that 
the markings appear as light 
spots on a dark ground. 

In alcohol they become bright 
red and afterward fade to a dull 
red color that remains for a long 
time, both varieties in this con- 
dition looking much alike. 

The males (fig. 142) differ, at 
first sight, extremely from the 
females. The legs are ringed as 
in the female and the brown parts 
are wider and less obscured by white hairs, 
while the white parts are whiter. The 
cephalothorax is dark brown, with a white 
stripe on each side under the eyes bend- 
ing toward each other but not connected. 
The front of the head is also white and 
covered with long white hairs. The palpi 
have the femur dark brown at the base 
and white at the end. The patella and 
tibia are brown, and the tarsus is brown, 
with white hairs on the upper side. The 
abdomen is white in front and 
around the sides. The middle 
is dark brown, with a few yellow 
and greenish scales. The brown 
area is often notched at the sides in four points and sometimes 
indistinctly divided into four pairs of spots, as in the female. 
The male palpi are large for the size of the spider, and the 
palpal organ extends back beyond the tibia. 




Figs. 145, 146, 147, 148. Icius palmariini. 
— 145, male. 146, female. Both en- 
larged six times. 147, front of head of 
male. 148, abdomen of female to show 
a variety of marking. 



56 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Icius palmarum. — This is very common on trees and bushes, 
and may be mistaken for Dendryphaiites csstivalis, which it much 
resembles. It differs from cestivalis in both sexes in being a 
little smaller and more slender and in the females lighter 
colored. In the males the head is wider, the front legs longer 
and darker colored than in cEstivalis, and the mandibles longer 
and more nearly horizontal. 

The living female has the legS and palpi transparent white, 
sometimes a little darker at the ends of the joints. The whole 
body is covered with light gray or white scales mixed with fine 
black hairs. The abdomen has a row of darker triangular spots 
in the middle and oblique rows of small spots at the sides. In 
alcohol the legs become yellow and the rest of the body red, 
as in cBstivalis, afterward fading to a dirty yellow. The mark- 
ings of the abdomen become more distinct and in some indi- 
viduals form four large dark brown spots. 

The males have the front legs very dark brown. 

The other legs are transparent white. The cephalo- 

thorax and abdomen are dark reddish brown 

mixed with shining greenish white scales and 

sometimes copper red around the eyes. On 

each side is a white stripe the whole length 

of the body, the two meeting in front below 

the eyes. The mandibles, maxillas, and palpi 

are dark brown. Some males show indistinctly 

dorsal markings of the abdomen like the 

female. The mandibles of the male are 

longer than those of the female and more 

or less turned forward according to their 

length. In some the mandibles are only a 

little longer than those of the female, and in these the patella 

and tibia of the front legs are not much longer than the femur. 

In others, usually larger spiders, the mandibles are nearly as 




Fig. 149. Icius mitra- 
tus. — Male enlarged 
six times. 



thp: attid^ 



57 




long as the cephalothorax and extend forward horizontally, the 
maxillae are longer, and the first pair of legs have the patella and 
tibia one and a half times as long as the femur. The female is 
longer in proportion to its 
width than in cestivalis and 
has the front legs stouter. 
The epigynum has two small 
anterior openings directed for- 
ward instead of toward each 
other, as in cBstivalis. This 
and the next species live on 
low bushes all summer. 

Icius mitratus. — This species 
closely resembles Icius palma- 
ritviy differing mainly in color. 
The legs are all white in both figs. 150, 151. iduseiegans.- 150, female. 

_ 151, male. Both enlarged six times. 

sexes, and the mandibles of the 

male are white and not long and horizontal, as in palnianivi. 
The females resemble palniarum so closely that it is difficult 
to tell them apart. The cephalothorax is a trifle wider, and 
the abdomen narrower, and the front legs longer than in 
palmaruni. The general color is whiter, and the spots on the 
abdomen are more distinct, as in fig. 148. The male has the 
legs white or a little greenish, with long white hairs, those on 
the front legs longer than the diameter of the legs. The rest 
of the body is white, except a light brown stripe in the middle 
of the cephalothorax and abdomen, covered with light yellow 
hairs, through which three or four dark spots show indistinctly 
on the abdomen (fig. 149), When fighting with other males, 
or when approaching the female, the hairy front legs are 
straightened and extended sidewise. 

Icius elegans. — A little bronze green spider, from a sixth to 
a quarter of an inch long. The cephalothorax is two-thirds 



58 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



as wide as long, with the sides nearly straight and parallel in 
the female but widened behind the middle in the male. The 
abdomen of the female is oval and nearly twice as long as wide. 
The color is bronze green, changing in some lights to copper 
red. The legs are yellow, with longitudinal dark stripes, except 
the front femora, which are dark brown. 
The males are much more brightly colored. 
The legs are orange, darker toward the ends, 
with fine dark longitudinal stripes. The ends 
of the front tibiae are dark brown and have 
long brow^n hairs on the inner and upper 
side. The palpi are orange, darker toward 
the end. The sides and hinder part 
of the cephalothorax are orange, 
and there is a white line over the 
coxae. The upper part of the cepha- 
lothorax and abdomen is covered 
with greenish yellow scales. On 
the front of the head are two tufts 
of long hairs, yellow mixed with 
black, pointing forward and a little 
inward between the middle and 
lateral eyes. On the hinder end 
of the abdomen is an iridescent 
purple spot. The abdomen is 
green on the under side, and the 
sternum and coxae are orange. In 
alcohol all the colors become dull. 
The mandibles are slender, and the claw short and strongly 
curved inward toward the point. In the male the mandibles 
are a little longer and hollowed a little on the inner side. The 
male has the first pair of legs much longer and larger than the 
others. In the female the fourth legs are longest. 




Fig. 152. Maevia 
vittata. — Fe- 
male enlarged 
six times. 



THE ATTID/E 



59 



Maevia vittata. — This is a brightly colored spider about a third 
of an inch long and with unusually long legs for this family, — 
the fourth pair longest in the females and the first and fourth 
of equal length in the males. The female (fig. 152) has the 
legs and palpi translucent yellow or greenish white. They are 
marked with indistinct light gray rings and black spots at the 
base of the hairs and spines. The cephalothorax is dark brown 
between the eyes 
and translucent 
like the legs in 
the thoracic part. 
There is a fine 
black line in the 
middle and one on 
each side and a 
few gray marks 
radiating from the 
dorsal groove. 
Thewholetop 
of the cephalothorax 
is covered with green- 
ish yellow scales mixed 
with gray hairs. The 
eyes are black, and 
sometimes there is a 
red stripe under the 
eyes at the sides. The 
abdomen is covered 

with scales which in the middle and at the sides are gray and 
mixed with black hairs. There are two longitudinal bands of 
light red and indistinct angular marks of the same color in the 
middle of the hinder half. On the under side the colors are light 
gray and yellow, with spots of darker gray on the abdomen. 




Figs. 153, 154. Maevia vittata. — Males enlarged six 
times. 153, dark variety with long hairs on front 
of head. 154, light variety colored like the female. 



6o 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



The males are of two very different colors. One kind (fig. i 54) 
resembles the female. The red bands on the abdomen are 
broken up into rows of spots connected with the middle 

angular markings. The gray 
and black spots on the legs and 
cephalothorax are larger, and 
there are several black marks 
on the front of the abdomen. 
The palpi are bright orange 
yellow, with the tibial hook 
black and a black spot on the 
inner side of each joint. The 
size of the black spots varies 
in different individuals, and so 
this passes into the other variety 
(fig. 153), in which the cephalo- 
thorax and abdomen are entirely 
black and the palpi black, except 
a few orange hairs on the outer 
side. The black cephalothorax and abdomen are covered with 
dark greenish shining scales. The legs in this variety are 
transparent white except the hairs, and on the front of the head 
are three tufts of long hairs which are wanting in the light- 
colored males. 

Epiblemum scenicum, — This is the common gray and white 
spider that lives on houses and fences (fig. 155). It is about 
quarter of an inch long, the cephalothorax half longer than wide, 
and the abdomen a little wider and longer. The front of the head 
around and above the eyes is white. There is a white stripe 
on each side of the cephalothorax, and in the middle two white 
spots, one each side of the dorsal groove. On the abdomen 
there is a white stripe across the anterior end, and two oblique 
marks on each side. The legs are gray, with white rings not 




Figs. 155, 156. 
Epiblemum sceni- 
cum. — 155, female. 
56, male. Both enlarged six times. 



THE ATTID/E 



6l 



very distinctly marked, and the palpi white. On some indi- 
viduals the white marks are more definite than on others, the 
gray ground having but few white scales mixed with it. In 
others yellow and white scales are 
largely mixed with the gray, and so 
the contrast with the white spots is 
less. The males (fig. 156) differ but 
little in size, color, or markings from 
the females, but the male mandibles 
are much larger and extend horizon- 
tally in front of the head, sometimes 
two-thirds as long as the cephalotho- 
rax. This is a common European, 
as well as American, spider. It is 
occasionally found on the ground or 
on plants, but commonly on and 
about houses. 

Marptusa familiaris. — This is another 
common species on fences and the out- 
side of houses (fig. 157). When full 
grown it is half an inch long. The 
whole body is much flattened, and 
both the cephalothorax and abdomen 
are widened in the middle. The 
cephalothorax is rounded at the sides 
and three-quarters as wide as long, 
and the abdomen is half as wide as 
it is long. The legs are long and 
stout, the fourth pair one-half longer 
than the abodmen. 

The general color is gray, with long 
gray and white hairs. The cephalothorax has a dark brown 
band along the edge on each side, which is larger and darker in 




Fig. 157. Marptusa familiaris. — 
Female enlarged six times. 



62 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



of 



as 



IS 

loi 



the males. The abdomen has in the middle a yellowish white 
marking covering half its width, the front half straight and the 
hinder half notched at the sides. The legs are darker at the 
ends of the joints and light in the middle. The under 
side of the abdomen has a dark middle stripe. 

Hyctia pikei. — A slender species a quarter to a third 
an inch in length, with the abdomen twice as long 
the cephalothorax, and in general appearance like 
seed or piece of straw (fig. 158). The whole body 
covered with silvery white hairs mixed with a few 
no:er black ones. The markings of the back in 
the male are a dark middle stripe on the abdo- 
men, partly divided by notches into four spots 
and a fine middle line and two less distinct side 
lines on the cephalothorax. In the female the 
stripe on the abdomen is less definite and is 
broken up into spots, and in young spiders the 
whole body is pale yellow or greenish. The 
front legs are as long as the abdomen in both 
sexes, colored brown, and with the middle joints 
thickened. They are not much used in walk- 
ing, bemg extended straight forward and raised 
enough to clear the ground while the spider 
walks with the other six. The other legs are 
pale and slender. 

The elongated shape of this spider distin- 
guishes it from all the other common Attidae. 
The markings and the position of the legs, two 
pairs pointing forward and two backward, 
increase the long appearance. The basal joints of the fourth 
legs are brought close together, and those of the first pair 
almost as close. The labium and maxillae are a little longer 
than usual and are partly covered by the first legs. 



]'iG. 1 58. Hyctia 
pikei, enlarged 
eight times. 



THE ATTID^E 



^i 



I have found this spider common on sand grass, where nothing 
else grows, and the young lying lengthwise on the leaves could 
hardly be seen. They mature in the middle of the summer. 
When the male approaches the female he raises 
the front legs at an angle of sixty degrees with 
each other, raises the abdomen a little, and 
advances by short runs, twitching 
the front legs and abdomen every 
few moments. 

Cyrba taeniola. — A small flat 
spider, nearly black, the females 
quarter of an inch long, and the 
males a sixth of an inch (fig. 159). 
The cephalothorax is one-half 
longer than wide, very low and 
flat, with the sides parallel for half 
its length. The front middle eyes 
are large and close together, the 
lateral 
eyes half 
as large 
and a little separated from them. The 
first legs are twice as thick as the others 
and have the femora flattened, but in 
the female the fourth legs are longest. 
The abdomen is as wide as the cephalo- 
thorax and a little longer. The hairs 
all over the body are short. The 




159 100 

Figs. 159, 160. Cyrba tEniola. — 159, 
female enlarged eight times. 160, 
profile to show flatness of the back. 



162 

Figs. 161, 162. 
Hasarius hoyi. 
— 161, young 
female enlarged 
six times, 162, 

cephalothorax is black, smooth, and abdomen of adult female to show 
without markings. The abdomen i= difference in markings 




IS 



dark gray, with two rows of white spots often indistinct and 
perhaps sometimes absent. The legs have the femora and patella 
and tibia of first and second pairs black or dark brown and the 



64 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Other joints light and black at the ends. The under side is 
black. The sternum is very short, so that the basal joints of 
the front legs touch each other. 

Hasarius ho3ri. — This species may be known by its peculiar 
colors, — the dark portions brown or black and the light parts 
white and orange brown (figs. i6i, 162). These colors are, as 
usual, brighter and the markings more distinct in the males. 
In front around the eyes the cephalothorax is covered with 
white hairs. At the sides a white band extends backward 
under the eyes, turning inward but not reaching the middle 
line. There is a light band, part white and part orange, 
around the abdomen and several angular marks in the 
middle, two of them in the hinder half, sometimes 
united into a large spot. In alcohol, and less 
plainly seen when alive, is a light band under 
the hairs, extending across the mid- 
dle of the cephalothorax and forward 
on the sides under the eyes. 

In females all these markings are 
less distinct, but traces of them can 
be found in most individuals. The 
colors are more brownish, and the 
markings of the abdomen smaller 
and more uniform in shape. The 
markings of the legs are dark on 
the middle joints and light at the 
base and on the tarsi, with strong 
contrasts in color in the males and' 

Figs. 163, 164. Svnemosvna 

formica. — 163, female enlarged eight little in the females. The length of 
times. 164, side of female. ^j^-^ spccies is about a quarter of an 

inch for large females. The males are smaller. 

Synemosyna formica. — A small spider so much like an ant as 
to be often mistaken for one (fig. 163). It is about quarter 




THE ATTID^ 



65 




of an inch long and very slender. The cephalothorax is 
narrowed behind and the abdomen in front, and each has a 
deep depression in the middle. The stem of the abdomen is 
flat, and widened behind so that it is nearly as wide as the ends 
of the thorax and abdomen, which it connects. The 
front middle eyes are large and cover two-thirds of 
the width of the front of the head, and the rest of the 
eyes are small. The legs are all slender, the hind 
pair longest. The general color is black, with yellow- 
ish or orange-white markings. There is a triangular 
white spot in front of the dorsal groove, and one on 
each side widening downward under the posterior 
eyes. On the abdomen there is a white stripe 
extending downward from the dorsal depression on 
each side and uniting in a large white patch under- 
neath (fig. 164). In pale individuals the whole front 
half of the abdomen is light yellow or orange brown. 
The second legs are entirely white, the others partly 
black. The male has the head higher and is darker colored 
and more slender. 

This spider not only resembles an ant in form and color but 
moves like an ant. It does not jump like most Attidae, though 
it can do so, but walks and runs irregularly about and lifts its 
first legs high like the antennae of ants. 

Lyssomanes viridis. — A bright green spider common in the 
southern states. The arrangement of the eyes differs from 
that usual in the Attida; by the front lateral eyes being higher 
and closer together, so that they are over and behind the front 
middle pair (fig. 165). The cephalothorax is narrow in front, — 
not much more than half as wide as it is across the middle. 
The abdomen is narrower than the thorax and more than twice 
as long as wide. The female is a third of an inch in length, 
and the male quarter of an inch. The legs are long and slender, 



Fig. 165. 
Lyssomanes 
viridis, en- 
larged six 
times. 



66 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

the first pair longest and thickest, in the male half an inch in 
length and in the female a little shorter. In the female the 
mandibles are vertical and about as long as the height of the 
head. In the male they are as long as the cephalothorax, curved 
apart, and extended almost horizontally in front of the head. 
The color is light transparent green, sometimes without any 
markings. Usually there are four pairs of small black spots on 
the abdomen, and there are black spots around the eyes, except 
around the front pair, where there is a little orange color. They 
live on low bushes and mature early in the summer. 



THE LYCOSIDyE 

The Lycosidas are among the commonest spiders, or, at any 
rate, those most often seen. Most of them live near the 
ground and move actively about without attempting to conceal 
themselves. Their colors are black and white or the colors of 
the ground, stones, and dead leaves, sometimes nearly uniform 
all over the body, in other kinds arranged in a distinct pattern, 
with strong contrasts between the light and dark parts. In 
some species the markings are brighter and more characteristic 
on the under side than on the back. The legs are long, the 
fourth pair longest. The spines on the legs are long and often 
darker colored than the skin, and when the spider is active they 
stand out from the legs and make them appear larger. The 
first and second legs are more covered with fine short hairs and 
have the spines shorter and less easily seen than the third 
and fourth. The feet have three claws, the under one small 
and covered by the surrounding hairs. The eyes have a pecul- 
iar arrangement, the front row being small and nearly straight, 
the middle pair of the upper row just above them and much 
larger, while the lateral eyes of this row are carried back and 
upward on the sides of the head so that the eyes are really 
in three rows of four, two, and two (fig. 170). In those species 
with low heads, like Dolomedes, the upper row of eyes is less 
curved and smaller, and the whole arrangement resembles 
that in Tibellus and others of the Thomisidse. The body is 
usually long and the head high, the abdomen about as long and 
as wide as the cephalothorax and as thick as it is wide. 

Our largest spiders belong to this family. The females 
carry their eggs in round cocoons attached to their spinnerets, 

67 



68 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

and the young for a short time after coming out are carried 
about on the back of the mother. Dolomedes and Ocyale 
carry their cocoons in the mandibles and spin a loose web in 
bushes, where the young live for a time after leaving the cocoon. 
The young of most species pass the winter half grown and 
mature the next summer. Most of the little spiders seen 
spinning their threads on the tops of plants and fences in the 
Indian summer are young Lycosidae. 

Most of these spiders belong to two genera, Lycosa and 
Pardosa, the first including the larger species, with the eyes 
covering only a small part of the front of the head and the 
front row about the same length as the second ; the other, 
Pardosa, consisting of comparatively small species, with the 
four upper eyes very large and covering the whole top of the 
head and the front row much shorter than the second. 



THE GENUS LYCOSA 

The genus Lycosa includes spiders that differ greatly in the 
proportions of different parts of their bodies. In general, they 
are large and stout and their legs short compared to those of 
Pardosa and Dolomedes, the front legs being not much longer 
than the body. In the short and stout species, like pratcnsis 
(fig. 170), the eyes cover only a small part of the head, while in 
the longer legged and more slender species, like commimis 
(fig. 181), they are larger and spread farther apart. The head 
is highest behind and rounded downward in front, but less so 
in those species with large eyes. The spines of the legs are 
comparatively small and on the two front pairs concealed by 
the surrounding hairs. The fine flattened hairs on the front 
feet sometimes form a thick brush on the under side, extending 
up from the claws as far as the tibia. The colors are all 
shades of brown and gray. 



THE LYCOSID^ 



69 



Lycosa nidicola. 
long ; the legs 




— When full grown three-quarters of an inch 
short, the longest an inch in length. The 
color is dull yellow or greenish brown. On 
the cephalothorax there is a narrow yellow 
stripe in the middle and one on each side 
(fig. 166), and on the front of the abdomen 
the usual pointed stripe, dark at the edges 
and bordered by lighter bands. On the 
hinder half of the abdomen are indistinct 
cross marks. The legs are without mark- 
ings, and the spines short and hardly visible. 
The under side of the abdomen 
(fig. 167) is light in the middle 
and darker at the sides 
and marked with small 
brown spots. 
The males and 
young are lighter 
and more plainly 
marked than the 
adult female s. 
This spider lives 
under stones and other shelters in the woods 
in a shallow nest, lined with silk, where the 
female may be found with her cocoon of 
eggs early in the summer. 

Lycosa pratensis. — - A small species, four- 
fifths to half an inch long, yellowish brown, 
with indistinct light and dark markings. 169, side of cephalothorax. 

_,, 111 1 • 1 11 1- 1 1 1 17O) front of head and 

Ihe cephalothorax has a middle light band mandibles. 

as wide as the eyes, narrowed a little in 

front of the dorsal groove and broken in the middle by two 

brown spots (fig. 168). The sides of the cephalothorax near 




Figs. i66, 167. Lycosa 
nidicola. — 166, female 
enlarged twice. 167, 
under side of abdomen. 




168 
Figs. 168, 169, 
1 70. Lycosa 
pratensis. — 
168, female 
e n 1 a r g e d 
three times. 



70 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

the edge are faintly lighter than the rest. The abdomen has 
a pointed middle stripe, dark at the edges, extending back half 
its length, and behind this four or five dark cross stripes. The 
legs are darker toward the ends ; the femora are marked with 
two broken dark bands, and the patella and tibia of the third 
and fourth legs have faint dark rings. The spines are small 
and, on the two front pairs of legs, hardly visible among the 
other hairs. The under side is light colored, with 
the ends of the legs darker. The epigynum is 
short and wide. The males differ little from the 
females. This does not seem to be a 
very active spider and is commonly found 
under stones. 

Lycosa polita. — This is a short-legged 
species resembling in size and color 
Lycosa pratensis. The hairs are very 
/fY *?/\ short and often entirely absent from the 
^I'-^-*,.! t^^'l cephalothorax, which is smooth and shin- 
^*|-'ili'C« i'^g- The eyes are very close together, 
especially the two of the middle row, 
which is much shorter than the front 
f Fig. 171. Ly- TOW (fig. i/i). The ccphalothorax and 
H ^^^^, P°''^^' legs are often light brown without any 
U three times, markings, but in some individuals there 
are irregular dark marks along the sides 
of the thorax and broken rings on the legs. The abdomen is 
gray, light in the middle, with dark transverse marks behind 
and closely placed dark spots at the sides, much as in Tegenaria 
medicinalis and Amaurobius. The abdomen is light under- 
neath, with a darker middle line and irregular oblique rows 
of spots at the sides. 

Lycosa nidifex. — This spider lives in sandy regions, — the 
females in holes ten or twelve inches deep, the adult males 




THE LYCOSID.-E 7 1 

on the surface of the ground. The males (fig. 174) are half or 
five-eighths of an inch long and spread two inches. They are 
colored like the sand, — a little redder sometimes in the middle 
spots and on the femora, and gray at the sides. There is a 
spot in the middle of the abdomen edged with black and 




Fig. 172. Mouth of hole of Lycosa nidifex in sand, and footprints of the spider where 
it ran out from the hole and back again. One-third the real size. 

a black band on each side of the head divided in front, the 
branches extending to the lateral eyes of both rows. The 
ends of the palpi and the spinnerets are black. The mandibles 
are black, except in the middle, where they are covered with 
bright yellow hairs. On the under side (fig. 175) the two front 
pairs of legs, sternum, and mouth parts are black, the hinder 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



legs and abdomen light sand color, like the back. The female 
(fig. 173) is larger, — three-quarters of an inch or more in length. 
The color is more gray or slate color, darker in front and 
lighter behind, as in the male. The cephalothorax has a 
& light gray band in the middle, and the abdomen 
a middle dark band broken at the sides by three 
or four pairs of light spots. The front two pairs 
of legs are thicker than the others and more 
closely covered with hair in both sexes. 

In August the males wander about on 
the sand and are easily caught. Though 
their color is much like the sand, the 
marks of the back and legs make them 
more easily seen than L. cinerea (fig. 177) 
and other sand spiders. The females live 
in holes three-quarters of an inch wide 
and ten inches or more deep. The sand 
is held together by silk, which is very 
thin below but thicker toward the open- 
ing. Sometimes bits of sticks and straw 
are fastened around the hole, but as often 
it is entirely clean and not concealed in 
any way. The females keep near their 
holes and drop into them at the least 
fright. As one walks across the neigh- 
borhood no spiders are to be seen, only 
open holes. After a short time they 
come to the surface, at first slowly, but sometimes, as they see 
the place clear, with a sudden jump, and stand over the hole 
ready to drop back into it. The color of the females is more 
gray or slate color than that of the males. The markings of 
the abdomen are larger and more distinct, but the black on the 
thorax and front legs is less marked than in the males. 




Fig. 173. 
Lycosa nidi- 

fex. — Fe- 
male en- 
1 a r g e d 
twice. 



THE LYCOSID^ 



73 



Lycosa carolinensis. — This is one of the largest spiders living 
in the northern states, and it resembles in size and color the 
famous Tarantula of southern |i|j Europe (fig. 175). The 
female is sometimes over an 



inch in length, with the 

long, so that it spreads over 

males have the legs as 

V\ der, and the body is 

n^ thr( 



^^^^ Uftik th''^^-qu^rters of an 
^X f\\\ S^^y mixed with 

:he VV\A(C1\ ,1 



fourth legs an inch and a half 

three inches. The 

long but more slen- 

smaller, measuring "V;^ 

inch. The color is 

brown, like the fur of a mouse, 

the males lighter than the 

females. 

On the under side the whole 
body is black, including the 
first and second joints 
of the legs and the 
maxillae. The legs 
are light gray, with /^ 
dark bands at the 
ends of the joints. The man- 
dibles are brown, with orange- 
yellow hairs on the front. 
There is sometimes a little 
yellow on the ends of the first 
and second legs and palpi of figs. 174,175. Lycosa .^^^ 

the male. nidifex.- 174, back of ' 

male. 175, under side of 
The female makes a hole, male. Both enlarged 

but not a deep one, and hides 

in it with her eggs, but is often found running 

about on the ground. 

Lycosa cinerea. — A common spider on beaches 
and sandy fields all over this country and in Europe (fig. 177) 
The general color is dirty white covered with small black and 




74 



THE COMMON SPIOERS 



i\ gray marks, so that, when it lies flat on the sand, it 
can hardly be distinguished from it. The body is half 
an inch long, and the fourth legs nearly 
an inch. The under side is white or gray, 
and the whole body covered with white 
and gray hairs. The legs are marked with 
indistinct dark rings, two or three to each 
joint. On the cephalothorax the spots 
radiate irregularly from the dorsal groove ; 
the space between the eyes is dark, and 
the mandibles are dark brown. The mark- 
ings of the abdomen are broken ; 
up into small spots, so that there 
is little of the usual fig-ures. The 




Fir.. 176. Lycosa caroli- 
nensis. — Under side of 
female to show the black 
markings. 



male paipi are 

long and slender 
and the ends very small. 

Lycosa kochii. — This is a 
common species in the woods, 
and is colored brown and gray, 
like dead leaves (fig. 179). It 
is half an inch long when full 
grown, and the fourth legs three- 
quarters of an inch. The upper eyes 
are larger than m pratensis and nidicola, and cover 
half the width of the head, as in communis. The 
cephalothorax is light gray in the middle and dark 
at the sides and around the front of the head. 
The legs are gray, lighter toward the body and 
darker toward the ends, marked with indistinct 
rings, two or three to each joint. The abdomen ^^''■'^- 7'"- ''^- ^y- 

_ •' cosacmerea. — 177, 

is gray, with broken darker gray markings form- female enlarged 

T . • ^, r . 1 • 1 four times. 178, 

mg indistmctly a row of transverse marks m the maxiiia;. 




THE LYCOSID^ 



75 




middle. The sides are darkest toward the front 

end, where there are two black spots. The under 

side is lighter than the back. The epigynum 

1 80) differs from that of the related species, 

having the middle lobe narrow in front and 

wide and triangular at the end. 

Lycosa communis. — This is a common spider 
in pastures, running in grass or hiding under 
stones. It varies in color from light gray to 
almost black, but the markings are almost 
always the same and distinct. On the thorax 
there is a middle stripe ex- 
tending forward to the eyes, 
and a narrower one between 
the eyes to the front of the 
head (fig. 181). 



Figs. 179, 180. 

kochii. — 1/9, female 
enlarged twice. iSo, 
epigynum. 



At the sides 
are light 
stripes nearly 
as wide as the 
middle one 
extending 
under the eyes 
to the front of 
the head. On the abdomen the 
front pointed stripe is large. The 
light stripes at the side of it are 
wide and distinct, uniting on the 
hinder half of the abdomen into 
a middle stripe, broken some- 
times into a row of four or five 
spots. In dark individuals this 
light marking is yellow and more 




;. 181. 182. Ly- 
cosa communis. — 

181, female en- 
larged three times. 

182, front of head 
showing eyes 



76 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Strongly defined than in lighter ones. On the thorax, especially 
in light colored-spiders, there are usually two or three light 
marks radiating from the dorsal groove. The legs, except the 
ends of the first and second, are marked with rings at the ends 
and middle of the joints, indistinct in light spiders and brighter 
in dark ones. 

The length is two-fifths to half an inch. The legs are long, 
the fourth pair three-quarters of an inch in length. The second 
row of eyes is a little wider than the first, and the second eyes 
are large and their diameter apart (fig. 182). 
On the under side of the abdomen are two 
dark stripes meeting at the spinnerets so as to 
form a horseshoe-shaped figure, but in some very 
dark individuals the whole under side of the 
abdomen behind the epigynum is dark colored. 
There is little difference between the sexes. 
The females carry eggs in June and July. 

Lycosa scutulata. — This is a large and well- 
marked species, over half an inch in length and 
with hind legs over an inch long (fig. 183). 
The legs are yellowish gray without markings. 
The cephalothorax is dark gray, with a light 
middle stripe and one on each side extending 
under the eyes to the front of the head. There is also a 
narrow light line on the edge of the thorax at the sides. In 
the middle of the abdomen is a dark stripe, with five or six 
pairs of light spots, those of the front pair being only partly 
inclosed by the stripe. At the sides of the middle stripe 
are narrower light bands, and beyond these fine light and 
dark oblique lines. On the under side the whole body is 
light gray. 

In the males the front legs are a little longer and much 
darker colored than the others. The male palpi are slender. 




Fig. 1S3. Lycosa 
scutulata. — Fe- 
male enlarged 
twice. 



THE LYCOSID^ 



77 



and the tarsi small for so large a spider. The second row of 
eyes is a little wider than the front row. 

Lycosa ocreata. — The female may easily be mistaken for young 
L. kocJiii (fig. 179) or couwiiinis (fig. 181), but the male is con- 
spicuous on account of the dark 
head and front legs and espe- 
cially the thick covering of 
black hairs on the tibiae of the 
first pair. The cephalothorax \ 
has a distinct light middle 
stripe, narrower and straighter 
in the male (figs. 184, 185). 
The middle of the abdomen is 
yellow, with the pointed stripe 
only a little darker and marked 
with black spots around the edges. At 
the sides the abdomen is brown, broken 
in spots, and in the middle of the hinder 
half are three or four cross marks. The 
legs are yellowish and ringed with gray 
in the females. In the males the femora 
and the sides of the thorax are much 
darker brown, and the tibiae of the front 
pair dark and thickly covered with hairs. 
The male palpi have the patella and tibia 
thickened and about as wide as long. 

The front legs are plainly thicker than the second in both 
sexes. The second row of eyes is wider than the first. The 
length of either sex is a little over quarter of an inch. The legs 
are slender and thinly covered with long fine hairs. The longest 
leg is about half an inch. 




Figs. 1S4, 1S5. Ljxosa ocreata. 
— 184, female enlarged eight 
times. 1S5, cephalothorax 
and front legs of male. 



78 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Ficis. i86, 187, 188. Pardosa 
lapidicina. — 186, female en- 
larged four times. 187, 
side of cephalothorax. 
iSS, epigvniim. 



legs, the fourth 
The color is 
with black 
ings (fig. 186). 
being wet, the J 



THE GENUS PARDOSA 

iists of comparatively 
Df them long legged and 
lead is high in front, and 
;he four upper eyes large 
pread over the whole front 
c head (fig. 200). The 
runt row of eyes is plainly 
horter than the second 
ow. The colors are gener- 
ally dark, often 
black, and with 
white markings. 
The spines of the 
legs are long, even 
on the front pairs, 
and the whole body 
is often covered 
with long hairs. To 
show the compara- 
^86 tive size of the dif- 

ferent species of this genus, all 
the figures are made on the 
same scale, four times the 
real size. 
Pardosa lapidicina. — Four -fifths 
of an inch long and with long 
pair three-quarters of an inch long, 
black, the whole body being covered 
hairs that obscure the few light mark- 
When looked at closely, especially after 
legs appear a little lighter colored toward 




THE LYCOSID^ 



79 



the ends, and the femora faintly marked with light rhigs. In 

the middle of the cephalothorax there is a large light spot, 

widest just in front of the dorsal groove, and at the sides are 

rows of irregular light spots. On the abdomen are three or 

four pairs of light spots near together in 

the front half, and behind are two rows of 

spots meeting over the spinnerets. On the 

under side the color is a lighter gray than 

on the back. The color, as in all spiders, 

varies according to age, the young and freshly 

molted having a deeper black color, while 

older ones are gray. The epigynum is shown 

in the figure (fig. i88), and is quite constant 

in shape. It distinguishes this species from 

grecnlandica (fig. 189), for which it is most 

likely to be mistaken. The male differs little 

from the female. This spider lives among 

gray stones in the hottest and driest places 

from Connecticut to Labrador. 

Pardosa albomaculata or greenlandica. — This 
species resembles lapidicina (fig. 186), but is 
a little larger and not quite as long legged. 
It has longer hairs and is marked with bright 
white spots on a black ground. There are 
two rows of white spots on the abdomen, and 
others along the sides of the cephalothorax 
and on the legs (fig. 189). Wet in alcohol 
it shows similar irregular markings on the 
abdomen as lapidicina, but the light spots 
on the thorax are smaller, the middle one extending forward 
only to the dorsal groove. The epigynum (fig. 190) is large 
and distinct. Its outline has been compared to that of a 
decanter, narrow in front and rounded out at the sides behind. 




190 

Figs. 189, 190. Pardosa 
greenlandica. — 1S9, 
female enlarged four 
times. 190, epigynum. 



8o 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



There is a long narrow middle lobe, generally widened at the 
end, but varying much in shape. At the front end of the epigy- 
num are two small depressions. It resembles the epigynum 
of glacialis (fig. 192), but is always longer and 
narrower and has the middle lobe straighter and 
more distinct. White Mountains, on bare 
stones. Rocky Mountains, Canada, and 
Greenland. 

Pardosa glacialis or brunnea. — One-third 
of an inch long. Color dark brown with 
some light markings. In the mid- 
dle of the cephalothorax is a light 
stripe, widening and fading out 
toward the eyes and divided by a 
dark middle line, widest in front 
and extending back as far as the 
dorsal groove (fig. 191). On each 
side is a light stripe extending 
under the eyes to the front of the 
head. The abdomen has the mid- 
dle pointed stripe light colored, and some- 
times there are four or five pairs of small 
spots of white hairs on the hinder half. In 
alcohol there are obscure cross markings and 
black spots. The legs are marked with longitu- 
dinal dark and light lines. On the under side 
there is usually a light middle stripe on the front of the sternum, 
and the middle of the abdomen is lighter than the rest. The 
whole body is hairy ; there are long black hairs on the front of 
the head, and the spines are long and colored like the legs. The 
epigynum (fig. 192) has a narrow middle lobe transparent at 
the end so that it is difficult to see, and dark brown pieces 
at the sides, with the outer ends turned forward. The shape 




Figs. 191, 192. 
Pardosa glacialis. 
— 191, female n'^ 
enlarged 
four times. 



192, epigy- 
num. 



THE LYCOSID/E 



8i 



can best be understood from the figure. The epigynum varies, 
but distinguishes this species plainly ixovcv greenlandica (fig. 190), 

with which it is likely to 
be associated. The male 
palpi are large and black 
at the ends, the tarsus 
oval and pointed, and the 
tibia short and as thick as 




Figs. 193, 194, 195, 196. 
Pardosa tachypoda. — 
193, female enlarged 
four times. 194, ceph- 
alothorax and palpus 
of male. 195, epigy- 
num. 196, palpus 
of male. 



long. 
This spider 
has been 
found all 
over Canada and 
as far north as Green 
is common in the White Mountains and h 
found as far south as Connecticut. 

Pardosa tachypoda or montana. — This is 
Canadian and White Mountain spider foun 
as far south as Massachusetts (fig. 193). It 
is smaller than either s^reenlandica ox glacialis ^^^^- '97, 198, 199, 200, 

201. Pardosa pallida. 

and larger than 7iigropalpis and albopatella. —197, female enlarged 
The colors are more like the last two '""Z'Tt ^£""tZ 

side 01 female. 199, 

species, but the legs are darker and more back of male. 200, 

,. . , . , ,^, ,. , , . J. front of head. 201, 

distmctly rmged. The light markmgs of end of palpus of male. 




THE COMMON SPIDERS 



the cephalothorax and abdomen are less distinct and more 
broken and irregular. The epigynum (fig. 195) has a character- 
istic shape different from any of the allied species, the two 
anterior depressions being wide apart and the middle ridge 
narrow and rounded at the end. The male palpi (fig. 196) are 
rather slender, as in lapidicina, and uniformly colored, and all 
the differences between the sexes are less strongly marked 
than in Jiigropalpis and albo- \ patella. 

Pardosa pallida. — One-fifth 
of an inch long and brightly 
marked with black 
and brown on a light 
yellow ground (figs. 
197, 199). The 
cephalothorax is nar- 
rower than in most 
species. The ceph- 
alothorax has two 
wide gray stripes 
and a fine black line 
on the edge at each side. 
The abdomen has the middle 
pointed stripe light brown 
with a broken black edge. 
On each side is a black band, 
made up of spots closer toward 
the middle and more scattered 
toward the sides. The legs are light yellow, with a few black 
spots near the body. The spines of the legs are long but 
not dark colored. On the under side there are dark spots on 
the sternum near the base of each leg, and sometimes two rows 
of spots or two bands nearer the middle. On the under side 
of the abdomen are two black stripes, sometimes connected 




THE LYCOSID^ 



83 



behind. In the males (fig. 199) the colors are darker and the 
dark markings larger. The ends of the palpi are large and 
covered with black hairs. 

In one freshly molted young male there was hardly any 
trace of the spots on the sternum. The male palpi were dark 
gray with black hairs, except the tarsus, which was light 
colored, with a dark spot 
in the middle and a few 
black hairs. The 
markings of the 
abdomen were very indi 
tinct, and the light color 
brownish, while the tho- 
rax and legs are slightly 
green. The first 
femora were black 
toward the end. 

Pardosa nigropalpis. — 
About quarter of an inch 
long. Black and gray. 

The male with head and palpi black (fig. 203). In the 
female the cephalothorax has a large light middle stripe, 
widest between the eyes and the dorsal groove, and a narrow 
light stripe on each side (fig. 202). The abdomen is light in 
the middle for its whole length in an irregular stripe partly 
divided by faint cross lines of gray. The sides are darker and 
spotted with black. The legs are faintly marked with darker 
rings. In the male the contrast between the light and dark 
markings is greater, the markings of the cephalothorax are 
smaller and brighter, and the head and palpi are black and 
covered with black hairs. 

Pardosa albopatella. — Smaller than P. nigropalpis, but resem- 
bling it in shape and color (figs. 205, 206). The middle stripe 




84 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



of the cephalothorax is narrower. The middle stripe of the 
abdomen is narrower and brighter at the front end. The 
femora are distinctly marked with four rings, and the other 
joints less plainly. In the male the ends of the legs are pale, 
without rings, and the rings of the femora are broken into spots 
except on the front legs, where the femora are black. The 
palpi (fig. 206) have the femora black and the patella white. 
The tibia is dark, and the tarsus is dark at the base and white 
toward the tip. 

Pirata piraticus. — - A small and active spider living in short 
grass in summer and under leaves in winter. The colors and 
shape of the body are much like Lycosa prateiisis (fig. 168), but 
the legs are proportionally larger and longer, and the colors 
brighter. The length is about a quarter of an inch. The 
front and second rows of eyes are of the same length, those 
of the V second row large and their diameter apart (fig. 209). 
The eyes\ of the upper row are nearly as large as those of the 
s e c o n d, \\ and twice as far apart. The color is pale 
f^', yellow, with gray or black markings. The 
cephalothorax has a narrow light line in 
the middle and one on each side (fig. 208). 
In the middle of the front of the abdomen 
is a light stripe with dark edges, which 
tapers into a line or row of spots behind 
the middle. At the sides of this are light 
Figs. 208, 209. "n stripes that unite behind, and outside of 

Pirata pirati- n ^ _ 

cus. — 208, if these are dark markings becoming smaller behind. 

^"" The legs have conspicuous dark spines, especially 

the hinder pair, and are faintly marked with rings 

or sometimes are without markings. 

Dolomedes and Ocyale differ in many respects from the 

other Lycosidae. They are more flattened, have the head lower, 

and the eyes all more nearly of the same size. The front row 




female en 
larged three 
times. 209, ' 
front of head 



THE LYCOSID^ 



85 



of eyes are small and near together. The upper row is about 
twice as long and strongly curved, and the eyes are nearly 
equal in size and twice as large as those of the front row (figs. 
214, 216). In Dolomedes the lower eyes are ^ about half as 
high as the top of the head. In Ocyale they "% are lower and 
farther apart, and the head resembles still 
more Tibellus of the Thomisidae. Both Ocyale 
and Dolomedes resemble this family in their flat- 
tened body and wide thorax. 

Dolomedes sexpunctatus. — Dark 
greenish gray or, in young 
spiders, yellow, with a silvery 
white line each side the whole 
length of the body, meeting in 
front under the eyes and reach- 
ing back to the spinnerets (fig. 
210). In the middle of the 
cephalothorax is a narrow light 
line. On the hinder half of the abdomen 
are four pairs of small white spots, and 
sometimes another pair near the front end. 
On the under side the general color is 
lighter, and there are six dark spots on 
the sternum (fig. 211). The cephalothorax 
is three-quarters as wide as long, but looks 
narrower on account of the white stripes. 
The abdomen is proportionally longer than 
in tetiebrosus (fig. 213). The full-grown 
female is six-tenths of an inch long, with a spread of an inch 
and three-quarters. In winter and spring the half-grown young 
are very common everywhere. It lives near water and runs 
easily on it, each foot making a depression on the surface with- 
out becoming- wet. 




Figs. 210, 211, 212. Dolo- 
medes sexpunctatus. — 
210, female enlarged 
twice. 211, under side 
of cephalothora.x. 212, 
one of the feet, showing 
three claws. 



86 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




I 



Figs. 213, 214. Dolomedes tenebrosus. — 213, 

female enlarged twice. 214, front of head. 
Figs. 215, 216. Ocyale undata.— 215, female §// 

enlarged twice. 216, front of head. 



THE LYCOSID^ 



87 



Dolomedes tenebrosus. — This is one of our largest spiders, 
spreading its legs over four inches. The color is light and 
dark gray. The legs are indistinctly marked with light and 

dark rings and have long 

dark spines (fig. 213). 
The thorax is dark in the 
middle and lighter toward 
the eyes. On each side 
are light bands that extend 
around under the eyes and 
meet in front. The abdo- 
men has three pairs of 
transverse dark stripes, 
each with a light border 
on the hinder edge. The 
cephalothorax is four- 
tenths of an inch long and 
three-tenths wide, half as 
wide in front, and nearly 
straight on the front edge. 
It is rounded in the mid- 
dle, but not very high, 
and just behind the eyes 
is nearly flat. The under 
side of the thorax and legs 
is light colored, without 

markings, the abdomen a little darker. The abdomen is as 
long as the thorax, widest across the middle, and a little pointed 
behind. The male has longer legs and is more slender and 
strongly marked ; under the fourth femora near the end is a 
bunch of stiff hairs. The male palpi are long, with large tarsi 
and palpal organs and a long hook on the outer side of the 
tarsus. They live near water, on the ground or low bushes. 




Fig. 217. Xest of the young of Ocyale undata in 
a wild-rose bush. One-third the real size. 



88 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



The female carries her cocoon in her mandibles and makes a 
large bunch of silk in the bushes, in which the young live for 
some time after hatching. 

Ocyale undata. — When full grown over half an inch long, the 
thorax quarter of an inch, and the first and fourth legs an inch 
long. The thorax is almost as wide as long, and the head not 
much more than half as wide (fig. 215). The abdomen is long 
and narrower than the thorax and a little pointed behind. The 
color is a light brownish yellow, with a wide darker and browner 
band on the middle of both thorax and abdomen. This band 
is bordered by a white line a little curved 
in and out toward the tail. In younger 
spiders the color is lighter and yellower ; 
the middle stripe has the edges more 
undulating, and in very young ones it is 
serrated or even broken up into spots. 
The legs, which are plain in adults, are 
sometimes marked with rings in the 
young. The front end of the stripe is 
sometimes divided into two. These 
spiders live on bushes, without any web, 
until they have young. In the latter 
part of summer the females carry their 
flat cocoons under them, holding on with 
the mandibles. When the young are 
about to hatch the female builds a mass 
of web (fig. 217) three or four inches 
through, in which she leaves the cocoon, 

us.— 218, female enlarged ^^^ ^^g young COmC OUt and livC for a 
ix times. 219, front of head. •' _ 

time together in the web. 
Oxyopes salticus. — The eyes are in three rows, the front one 
of two small eyes, the second of four eyes, and the upper of 
two. The head is wide and less separated from the thorax 




Figs. 218, 219. Oxyopes salti 
cus 
six 



THE LYCOSID.t 



89 



longest, but all 
long spines. 



than in Lycosa and very high in front. The cephalothorax is 

two-thirds as wide as long and rounded both in front and 

behind (fig. 218). The abdomen of the male is smaller than 

the cephalothorax, but that of the female is wider and longer. 

It is widest in the middle, rounded in v front, and pointed 

behind. The legs are slender, the first pair 

nearly of the same length and with very 

The colors and markings are very 

variable. The legs are white or 

pale yellow, with black spines. The 

light parts of the body are the same 

color, with brown and black markings. 

There are usually four brown stripes on 

the cephalothorax from the eyes backward, 

and two black lines in front from the lower 

eyes down the front of the mandibles 

(fig. 219). The most constant mark of the 

abdomen is a pointed middle spot extending 

as far as the middle of the back. This is 

generally surrounded by light color, and at 

the sides are narrow oblique brown marks. 

There are sometimes fine black lines on the 

under sides of the femora and a wide black ^_'.f:..f.^°: ^ Oxyopes 

middle stripe under the abdomen. The 

males are sometimes colored like the female, 

and vary from this to black abdomen and palpi, with the rest 

of the body pale. A very common species in the southern 

states in the early summer, running on low bushes. There is 

another Oxyopes about the same size that has been found a 

few times as far north as New England. 

Oxyopes (Peucetia) viridans. — This is a common and conspicuous 
spider in the South. It is a bright transparent green, with red 
spots and black spines. It grows to a length of three-quarters 




viridans. 
female 
four 



Young 
enlarged 
times. 



90 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



of an inch, but is found in great numbers early in the summer, 
when it is only a quarter of this size (fig. 220). The head is 
narrower than in O. salticus, and the lateral eyes so high that 
they appear to belong to the upper rather than the middle 
row. The abdomen is the same width as the back part of the 
cephalothorax and tapers a little toward the spinnerets. The 
first pair of legs is longest and the second next. The general 
color is green, with the space between the eyes red, red spots 
and black spines on the legs, and two rows of red spots on the 
abdomen, sometimes united into a stripe, with pairs of white 
spots surrounded by red. 



THE AGALENID^ 

The larger Agalenidas are the makers of the flat wide 
cobwebs that are so common on the grass and in the corners 




Fig. 221. Web of Agalena nsevia in long grass, seen from above. One-third the real size. 

of barns and cellars. They resemble some of the Drassidce, 
especially Agroeca and Anypha^na (pp. 1-14). The head is 
large and marked off by shallow grooves from the thorax, and 

91 



92 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



is often contracted behind the eyes, so that it is narrower there 
than in front. The mandibles are large and, in the females, 
much swelled at the base in front. The arrangement of the 
eyes differs little from that in the Drassidas. The upper spin- 
nerets are longer than the others and have the terminal joint 




Fig. 222. Web m .\u;,iJi-ii,i ii.t . m m -Idu nl,l^^, uu the ^idc ut a hill, seen from the side. 
The spider stands in its usual place at the mouth of its tube. Half the real size. 

narrowed toward the end, with the spinning tubes on the inner 
side. The feet have three claws, like the Lycosidae, and do 
not have the brush of hairs common in the Drassidas. The 
males and females differ little in size, but the males have longer 
legs and smaller abdomen and large and complicated palpi. 

Agalena naevia. — This spider is known everywhere by its web, 
which it makes on grass, among stones and weeds, and in 



THE AGALENIDyE 



93 



houses (figs. 221, 222). It varies greatly in size and color. 
Large females may be three-quarters of an inch long, with legs 
measuring an inch and a quarter, while others may be full grown 
at half that size. In color some are pale yellow with gray 
markings, and others reddish brown with the markings almost 
black. Whatever the color, they 
are thickly covered with fine gray 
hairs. The cephalothorax has two 
longitudinal gray stripes and a black 
line along the edge on each 
side (fig. 223). The head 
is high and a little 
darker in front. 
Both rows of eyes 
are strongly 
curved, with the 
middle eyes high- 
est, so that the mid- 
dle eyes of the 
lower row and the 
lateral of the upper 
row form a nearly 
straight line (fig. 
224). The man- 
dibles are stout, 
not much swelled 
in front, and 

covered with hair. The abdomen is gray or 
black at the sides and lighter brown in the 
middle, with two rows of white or light- 
colored spots. The upper spinnerets are more than twice as 
long as the others, and the terminal joint much longer than 
the basal. The legs are large and long, the fourth pair almost 




. End of palpus of male 
Agalena naevia. 



Figs. 223, 224. 
Agalena naevia. — 

223, female en- 
larged twice. 

224, front of 
head. 



94 THE COIvn^ON SPIDERS 

twice as long as the body. The legs are marked with dark 
rings at the ends of the joints and lighter rings in the middle 
of femur and tibia. On the under side the coxae are light 
colored and the sternum dark, and there is a broad dark 
middle band on the abdomen from the hinder legs to the spin- 
nerets. The males are as large as the females, with longer 
legs and smaller abdomen. The male palpi have a very large 
black tube coiled one and a half turns under the tarsus 
(fig. 225). The web (fig. 222) is flat and shaped according to 




Fu;. 220. Newly made edge of web of Agalena naevia, showing 
arrangement of the threads. 

the surrounding objects to which it is fastened, with a tube at 
one side in which the spider hides. The eggs are laid in August 
and September in a flat cocoon, attached by one side in some 
sheltered place and covered with silk, often mixed with dirt. 
Most of the adult spiders die before winter, and females are 
often found dead on or near their cocoons. The young hatch 
in the winter and leave the cocoon early in the spring, and 
soon begin to build their webs among the short grass. The 
webs become more distinct when covered with dew, but, 
though too transparent to be seen at other times, they remain 
in the same places throughout the summer and are repaired 



THE AGALENID/E 



95 



and enlarged as the spider grows. If, however, the web 
should be destroyed, the spider is able in one day to make 
a new one as large as the old, but thin and transparent. The 
web contains many long threads crossing it from one side to 




Fig. 227. Web of Agalena naivia in a plant of golden-rod two feet above the .ymuiid, 
showing upper threads. One-fourth the real size. 



the other and nearly parallel, and these are crossed in all 
directions by finer threads (fig. 226). The long threads are spun 
from the lower spinnerets, the upper pair being held up over 
the back, out of the way. The fine threads are spun from the 
upper spinnerets, which are swung from side to side as the 



96 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



spider moves along. There is nothing adhesive about the web. 
It serves merely as a clearing where insects may alight to rest 

and the spider may have a good 
chance to run after them. Where 
the web is made under plants or 
rocks a great number of threads are 
carried upward from it, which may 
help in stopping insects (fig. 227), as 
they do in the webs of Linyphia. 
(See p. 135.) 

Tegenaria derhamii. — This is a com- 
mon species in barns and cellars, 
and has probably been imported from 
Europe, where it is even more com- 
mon. The head is high and wide, 
as in T. mcdicinalis. The mandibles 
are less swelled in front and the 
eyes are closer together than in that 
species, and cover more than half 
the width of the head (fig. 229). The 
cephalothorax is shorter and wider 
across the hinder half and the abdo- 
men shorter than in viedicinalis, and 
the legs are longer and more hairy. 
The colors are lighter and the hairs 
of the whole body longer. The 
female is two-fifths of an inch long. 
The cephalothorax is pale, with two 
gray stripes. The abdomen is marked 
with a series of gray spots, formed of 
a middle row more or less connected with two side rows ; the 
front of the abdomen often pale, with the markings faint 
(fig. 228). The legs are long, the first and fourth pairs nearly 




Figs. 228, 229. Tegenaria derha- 
mii. — 228, female enlarged four 
times. 229, front of head. 



THE AGALENID^ 



97 



twice the length of the body. They are marked with faint gray 
rings at the ends and two in the middle of each joint. The 
palpi are long and slender in both sexes, and those of the 
male have the patella and tibia of about the same length and 
each nearly twice as long as wide. There are no processes on 
the patella, but two small teeth on the tibia near its end. The 
tarsus is small and narrow, not as long as the patella and tibia. 




Fig. 230. Web of Tegenaria derhamii in corner of cellar. 

The webs are made in all parts of cellars and unswept build- 
ings, sometimes forming a shelf in the corner, not as large or 
as flat as those of A. ncEvia, but with a similar tube on the most 
sheltered side (fig. 230). The webs more often spread under 
beams and floors, fastened up by threads at the sides and edges, 
and, as they gather dust, hang down by its weight and become 



98 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




I'Kj. 231. \\ cij (ii i L-guiiaiia deihamii with spider in month of tulje. 
Old cocoons hanging at the left. 




Fig. 232. Web of Tegenaria derhamii curving downward on each side. 



THE AGALENID/E 



99 



torn and tangled. Old webs are repaired and extended until 
they become as thick as cloth with silk and dirt. The tube is 
generally smaller and less funnel shaped where it enters the 
web than that of Agalena. The web is not as flat as that of 
Agalena, curving usually down from the 
tube and up in front of it, often turning 
up abruptly at the edge. Sometimes it 
is fastened up in the middle of the 
front edge and curves downward each 
side (fig. 232). 

Fig. 231 shows a web of the most 
common form in the corner of a cellar, 
with the spider standing at the mouth 
of the tube, and the remains of egg 
cocoons hung up at the left. This 
web was at least a year old, and the 
front edge had just been extended with 
clear and transparent silk, while the 
middle was black with coal dust. 

Fig. 232 is another web in the same 
cellar, with the front edge fastened up 
to the boards above. It is drawn 
tightest in the middle and curves 
down on each side. /^ 

Tegenaria (Caelotes) medicinalis. — A 
large gray spider living in the woods, 
among rocks, in hollow trees, and under 
loose bark. It is half an inch long, with 
the legs of the female not much longer 
(fig. 233). The head is large and wide, 

and the eyes cover a little more than half its width. It is a 
little constricted in front of the legs and raised above the 
thorax as far back as the dorsal groove. The abdomen of 




233 

Figs. 233. 234. 
Tegenaria medicina- 
lis. — 233, adult 
female enlarged 
four times. 234, 
cephalothorax of 
young female to 
show spots. 



lOO 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



the females is large and oval, widest across the hinder half. 

The spinnerets are small, but plainly two-jointed, and the upper 
pair longest. The general color is light yellow 
brown, covered with gray hairs, the cephalo- 
thorax browner, and the abdomen grayer, than 
the legs. The cephalothorax has two indistinct 
gray stripes. The abdomen is marked with a 
series of gray spots of irregular shape, smallest 
toward the front and larger and darker toward 
the end. The legs are faintly ringed with gray, 
more distinctly in the young. 

The males are as large as the females, with 
smaller abdomen and longer legs. The palpi 
have the patella 
and tibia short, 
not much longer 
than wide (fig. 
235). The pa- 
tella has a short 

Fig. 235. Palpus of process on the 

male Tegenaria outCr sidc near 
medicinalis. 

the end. The 
tibia is of complicated shape, as 
shown in the figure. The tarsus 
is twice as long as the tibia and 
patella together, with a long 
narrow tip. The palpal organ 
is large and complicated, with 
a long fine tube that can be 
seen from above, where it curves 
around the base of the tarsus. 

The epigynum varies in appearance according to the thick- 
ness and color of different parts. The two figures show 









Figs. 236, 237. Two forms of epigynum 
of Tegenaria medicinalis. 



THE AGALENID^ 



lOI 



common varieties (figs. 236, 237). This species and longitaisus 
are both easily mistaken for Aniaurobius sylvestris and ferox, 
which are of the same size and color and live in the same 
situations. Amaurobius does not have the long upper spin- 
nerets like Tegenaria, the eyes are lower on the front of 
the head, and there are larger light-colored markings on the 
front of the abdomen. The young of Tegenaria vicdicinalis 




Fig. 23S. Web of Tegenaria medicinalis in a hollow of a rock, the front edge held up by 
threads running across the hollow, and the mouth of the tube showing behind it. 



are pale, with light gray markings, and the cephalothora.x is 
marked with spots radiating from the dorsal groove (fig. 234). 
The web of this spider is not flat like that of Agalena, but 
curved in various shapes according to the place where it is 
built. If there is an open level place near the nest, the web 
spreads across it, but usually curves upward at the edges and 
is fastened to surrounding stones and weeds. Where the 
spider lives in the cracks of a wall or rock, the net spreads 



I02 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



along the surface of the rock, held away from it a short dis- 
tance by threads fastened to projecting points on the stone 
(figs. 239, 240). This species is sometimes mistaken for the 
longer legged and more hairy Tcgcnaria 
derJianiii (fig. 228), that makes similar 
webs in barns and cellars. 

Tegenaria (Caelotes) longitarsus. — Smaller 
than nicdicinalis ; about two-fifths of an 
inch in length. The head is very wide, 
and the mandibles of the female more 
swelled in front than in nicdicinalis, and 
the eyes are smaller and cover less than 
half the width of the head (figs. 244, 
245). The cephalothora.x is darker 
colored in front and does not have the 
two longitudinal stripes seen in mcdici- 
nalis (fig. 241). The legs are only 
faintly marked with gray in the middle 
of the joints. The abdomen is marked 
with gray, in a series of dark and light 
spots, as in other species, and of more 
Fig. 239. Sections of webs of regular shape than in mcdicinalis. The 

Tegenaria and Agalena. — . .... i • i 

epigynum is light colored, with a mid- 




rt, Agalena navia ; h, com- 
mon form of Tegenaria der- 
hamii, with the edge lower 
than the tube ; c, Tegenaria, 
with the edge higher than the 
tube ; d, Tegenaria, with the 



die bar covered with hair and slightly 

forked at the hinder end (fig. 242). The 

male differs in the usual way from the 

edge carried up a long the face female and has the palpi shorter than 

of a rock ; c, Tegenaria, with 

the edge carried down as well mcdiciiialis. The tarsus has a projcc- 
^^"P" tion at the base that covers the tibia. 

The patella has a short process on the outer side that points 

directly forward (fig. 243). 

Tegenaria (Cicurina) complicata. — A small spider, resembling the 

young of the larger species of Tegenaria, found usually under 



THE AGALENID^ 



103 



dead leaves in woods (fig. 246). It is a fifth to a quarter of an 
inch long, with the longest legs one and one-half times as long 
as the body. The spines of the third and fourth legs are long 
and stout, and there are long fine hairs on all the legs and 
the abdomen. The color is pale yellowish brown, lighter on the 
abdomen, which has faint gray markings. The sexes are much 




Fig. 240. Web of Tegenaria medicinalis, with the front edge carried up 
along the face of a rock. See diagram (fig. 239, d). 

alike, and both vary in size. The palpi of the males are very 
large and conspicuous (figs. 248, 249). The patella is short and 
wide, and the tibia is narrower at the end and wide toward the 
base, where it has a short process on the outer side. On the 
under side of the tibia is a long thin appendage of irregular shape 
that is nearly as long as the tarsus. The tarsus itself is long 



I04 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




24S 247 249 

Figs. 241, 242, 243, 244. 245. Tegenaria longitarsus. — 241, back of female. 242, epigynum. 

243, palpus of male seen from above. 244, head of Tegenaria medicinalis. 245, head 

of Tegenaria longitarsus. 
Figs. 246, 247, 24S, 249. Tegenaria complicata. — 246, female enlarged four times. 

247) epigynum. 248, 249, male palpus. 



THE AGALENID^ 



105 



and narrow, and the palpal organ large and complicated, with 
a long fine tube that extends from the base along the outer 
side and back to the hard appendages in the middle. The 
epigynum (fig. 247) has a small, transverse, oval opening at 
the hinder end, in front of which the coils of long tubes can be 
seen through the skin. 

In New England Agalenidre PI. VII, fig. 2 is the epigynum 
of this species and not of Ccslotcs longitarsiis. 

Hahnia bimaculata. — The Hahnias resemble Tegenaria, but are 
much smaller and have the spinnerets extended in a line across 



men (fig. 251). HaJinia bima- 

an inch long, with the abdo- 

widest behind, as it is in 



fa 



the under side of the abdo- 
ciilata is about one-eighth of 
men large and oval, 
Caelotes (fig. 250). The 
cephalothorax is bright 
orange brown, and the 
legs and abdomen pale yellow- 
ish with gray markings. The 
legs are ringed with gray, the 
longer joints having two 
rings, and the abdo- 
men has a pattern of 
light yellow and gray 
spots. The spinnerets 
are all long and in a 
nearly straight line, half as 
long as the width of the 
abdomen. The outer or 
upper pair are half as long 

as the abdomen, and the two joints are nearly of equal length. 
The tracheal opening is in the middle of the abdomen, nearer 
the epigynum than the spinnerets. The sternum is as wide as 
long, widest opposite the second legs. The maxillae are straight 





Figs. 250, 251. Hahnia bimaculata. — 

250, female enlarged twelve times. 

251, under side showing the peculiar 
arrangement of the spinnerets. 



io6 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



in front and have a slight projection at the outer corners, where 
there are two or three stiff hairs. In some other species there 
is a longer process at these corners. 

This spider is common in winter under stones and under 
leaves. In summer it makes webs close to the ground, among 
short and thin grass and moss. 

Hahnia cinerea. — About a twelfth of an inch 
long; much smaller than bimaculata (fig. 251). 
The color is dark gray, the cephalothorax and 
legs brownish, and the legs a little lighter at the 
ends of the joints. The abdomen has a row of 
angular light spots in the middle. The spin- 
FiG 2-2. Hahnia ^ercts are in not quite as straight a line as in 
cinerea, enlarged Mmacuhita, the outer pair being a little higher 

sixteen times. 

and farther behind the next. The tracheal open- 
ing is not as far forward as in bimaculata, being nearer the 
spinnerets than the epigynum. The male palpi have the 
appendages of patella and tibia longer than in bimaculata, 
and softer and more curved. They are found under stones 
and leaves. 




THE THERIDID/E 



The Therididae are the builders of the loose and apparently 
irregular webs in the upper corners of rooms, in fences and 
among rocks, and between the leaves and branches of low trees 




a^ 



Fig. 253. Webs of Theridiuni in a fog, on the tops of burnt bushes. Half the real size. 
These webs are too fine to be noticed in dry weather. 

107 



io8 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



and bushes. They are generally small, soft, and light-colored 
spiders, with the abdomen large and round and the legs slender 
and usually without spines. The eyes are all about the same 
size and in two rows across the front of the head, with the 
lateral eyes of the two rows near together and often touching 
each other. The mandibles are weak and without teeth at 
the end. The maxillae are pointed at the end and turned 




Fig. 254. Webs of Theridium in a fog, on the tops of golden-rod. 
One-third the real size. 



inward toward each other. Most of the Therididae live always 
in their webs, hanging by their feet, back downward. The webs 
have in some part a more closely woven place under which the 
spider stands, sometimes in the middle of the web, sometimes in 
a corner out of sight. Where the spider's usual standing place 
is without other shelter, it is often concealed by pieces of leaves 
or sand carried into the web by the spider, and sometimes 



THE THERIDID.^ 109 

made into a tent. The outer part of the web is usually 
loosely made in large meshes, but is sometimes in a distinct 
sheet spreading from the nest and held out by threads in all 
directions. The cocoons are round and soft and hang in the 
web, several being made in the same season by one spider. 




Fig. 255. Web of Theridium tepidariorum in a dark corner. 
Half the real size. 

Several of this family, like Spintharus and Euryopis, have 
the abdomen smaller and flatter than usual and the fourth legs 
longer, so that they are better fitted for walking. They are 
found on plants, and little is known about their webs. 



no 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



THE GENUS THERIDIUM 

The Thericliums are small soft-bodied spiders, making large 
and loose webs without any large flat sheet of silk, but only a 
slightly closer portion where the spider stands, or a nest or tent 
connected with the web. TJieridium tcpidariorum (fig. 258) 
and nipicola (fig. 261) live in houses or among rocks, making 
large loose webs, in which the spider often stands without 
any covering. They have the abdomen high in front and 




Fig. 256. Web of young Theridium tepidariorum in a corner of a trellis. A little less than 
the real size. The spider stood in the close part near the middle. 

tapering a little toward the spinnerets. Theridiinn globosum 
(fig. 262) has the abdomen of the same shape. The other 
species are all small and have the abdomen round and brightly 



THE THERIDID^ 



I I I 



colored. They live in more open places on plants, where they 
make nests in which they are partly hidden, and carry their 
webs over the neighboring leaves and twigs (figs. 253, 254). 







*j^ HB 


jHHH 




i 


™if ™ 


<> ^s 








^-j^HH 




p 




^^BH^K^^r 


N 


J 








f 


^V* ^* 1^)^^^^^^^ 


' • V 


W^Kmy- 


J 


^w 


I'" 


• mi 


m 


H^ 


■=--«"' 


,iM 


m 


p - 





Fig. 257. Web of young Theridium tepidariorum in a crack of a rock. Half the real size. 
The spider stood in the middle under the closely woven part. 



Theridium tepidariorum. — This is one of the most common 
house spiders, and is often found in its webs among rocks, but 
seldom on plants. The females (fig. 258) measure sometimes 
over a quarter of an inch in length, but may mature much 
smaller. The legs of the first pair are nearly three times the 



112 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



length of the body. The male (fig. 259) is shorter and has 
longer legs. The color varies from dirty white to almost black. 
The cephalothorax is yellow brown, and the legs light yellow, 
with brown or gray rings at the ends and the middle of the 
joints. In the males the legs are orange brown, darker at the 
ends of the joints. The abdomen is high in front and narrows 

toward the spinnerets. In dark 

and well-marked specimens the 

abdomen has, on the hinder part, 

six transverse black marks curved 

upward, thicker in the middle, and 

partly connected by black spots 

at the ends (fig. 260). These 

marks are most sharply defined 

on the hinder edge, where they are 

bordered by silver white. The upper 

mark often forms a conspicuous black 

and white spot in the center of the 

abdomen. In light individuals all the 

markings are smaller and less definite. 

Figs. 258, 259, 260. It makes a large web in the corners 

rhendiumtepida- Qf rooms, Under furniture, and in the 

258, fe- 

angles of fences and between stones 
(fig. 255). It usually stands in the 
most sheltered part of the web, where 
a part of it is more closely woven than 
the rest, but not enough so to conceal the spider. It occasion- 
ally makes the web in an open place where there is no shelter 
above, and then it sometimes carries a piece of leaf into the 
web and hides under it, as is the usual habit with some allied 
species. The webs of the young are usually more regular in 
form than those of adults (figs. 256, 257). A male and female 
often occupy the same web for a long time. The eggs are 





riorum, 

male. 259, male 

260, abdomen of 

female seen from 

behind. 



260 



THE THERIDID.^ 



113 




Fig. 261. Theiidium nipicola, 
enlarged eight times. 



laid in brownish pear-shaped cocoons, sev'eral of which are made 

in the same season by one spider and hang in the web. This 

species is found all over the world. 

Theridium rupicola. — This resembles closely tcpidariornni and 

is easily mistaken for the young of that species. It does not 

grow larger than an eighth of an inch 

long. The colors are like tcpidarioTiim, 

usually dark gray with black spots, the 

back of the abdomen sometimes almost 

white. The legs are distinctly ringed 

with light and dark. In the middle of 

the abdomen is a pointed hump, the 

front part generally black and the hinder 

part white (fig. 261). 

It lives under stones and amon<r 

rocks, in webs like those of tcpidariormn, often containing 

grains of sand which look as if placed there by the spider, 

as sand falling into such a web would go through without 

sticking to the threads. 

Theridium globosum. — This is another species with a high 

abdomen like tepidariovum. It is about a twelfth of an inch 
long and almost as high (fig. 262). The 
abdomen is a little flattened behind and 
pointed toward the spinnerets. The 
hinder part is white, with a large black 
spot in the middle, below which is some- 
times a smaller black spot. Sometimes 
there is a bright white line around the 
light area. The front upper part of 
the abdomen is yellowish gray, and the 

under part brown. The cephalothorax is orange brown, 

except a black spot between the eyes. The legs are 

orange brown. 




Fig. 262. Theridium glo- 
bosum, enlarged eight 
times. 



114 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Theridium differens. — Female about one-eighth of an inch 
long, and the male smaller. The abdomen is round, and the 
middle stripe often very brightly colored, with white or yellow 
at the edges and red in the middle (fig. 264). The rest of the 




Fig. 263. Web of Theridium differens in the top of a young pine tree. Half the real size. 



abdomen is reddish brown, darkest next to the white edge of 
the stripe. There are no distinct marks on the under side. 
In males the stripe on the abdomen is obscure, and the whole 
abdomen dark reddish brown (fig. 265). Sometimes, especially 



THE THERIDIDyE 



115 



in young spiders, the abdomen is entirely yellow, with indistinct 
brown markings. The cephalothorax is orange brown, often 
darker in the middle, but with no distinct stripe. The legs and 
palpi are yellow in females and orange brown in males, slightly 
darker at the ends of the joints. The epigynum has no open- 
ings in sight. They are on the inner 
side in the transverse fold across the 
abdomen. The palpal organ (fig. 266) 
has two appendages at the end, one hard 
and roughened and the other soft. The 
web is on low plants of all kinds, usually 
two or three feet from the ground (fig. 
263). There is sometimes a small tent, 
often hardly deep enough to cover the 
spider, from which the web spreads two 
or three inches, according to the shape of 
the plant. The cocoons of eggs are 
white and nearly as large as the spider, 
and are attached in the nest. 

Theridium murarium. — Length about 
one-eighth of an inch, with the abdomen 
nearly spherical. The general color is 
gray. The legs are pale, with dark bands 
at the end and middle of each joint. The 
cephalothorax is pale, with a dark line in Figs. 264, 265, 266. Theridium 

-1 "in 1 1 "J i.-L differens. — 264, female en- 

the middle and one on each side, the i.^ged eight times. 265, male 
middle line sometimes divided into two enlarged eight times. 266, 

^^111 end of palpus of male. 

near the eyes (fig. 267). On the abdomen 

there is an undulated middle stripe, white at the edges and the 
front end, and reddish in the middle. On both sides of this 
stripe the abdomen is nearly black and becomes gradually lighter 
toward the sides. The sternum is pale, with a black edge and 
black stripe in the middle. The under side of the abdomen 




266 



ii6 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



is gray, with a long black spot in the middle and a smaller one 
over the epigynum. There is little difference in size or color 
between the sexes. The epigynum (fig. 269) has two round 
holes, wide apart, near the thickened edge. The palpal organ 
(fig. 268) is shorter and simpler than it is in differeiis. 

Theridium spirale. — This is a round-bodied spider of the same 
size as diffcrcns and murarium. The cephalothorax is orange 
brown above and below, with an indistinct dark stripe as wide 
in front as the eyes and narrowed behind. The abdomen has a 

middle stripe like dif- 
fcrc7is, nearly as wide 
in front as it is in the 
middle (fig. 271), The 
rest of the abdomen 
is gray, darkest to- 
ward the stripe. The legs are 
pale, sometimes with faint gray 
rings at the ends and middle of 
each joint. The middle stripe of 
the abdomen is sometimes red- 
FiGs. 267, 268, 269. Theridium murarium. dish as in iHurariitin, but oftcncr 

— 267, female enlarged eight times. 268, . , , , , 

end of palpus of male. 269, epigymim. g^ay. With a dark spot near the 

front end. The males (fig. 270) 
have the same color and markings as the female and are 
sometimes more distinctly marked. The male palpi (fig. 272) 
are very large, and the palpal organ has a long tube coiled on 
the under and outer side. The openings of the epigynum 
(fig. 273) are about their diameter apart. 

Theridium frondeum. — White, light yellow, or greenish white, 
with black markings that are very variable (fig. 274). Usually 
the cephalothorax has two fine black lines running back from 
the eyes and uniting behind the dorsal groove, and black edges. 
The legs are usually darkened with brown at the ends of the 




THE THERIDIU/E 



117 



joints, 
a li^ht 



The abdomen is large and round, and has on the back 
undulated band bordered by brownish translucent 

spaces, with two black spots 
just over the spinnerets. 
Sometimes there are black 
spots in the translucent 
spaces, especially toward the 
hinder end, and these may 
be united into two long 
black stripes. In some in- 
dividuals of either sex the 
black on the cephalothorax 
forms a wide band in the 




mM 



271 

Figs. 270, 271, 272, 273. 
Theridiiim spirale. — 
270, male. 271, fe- 
male. Both enlarged 
eight times. 272, end 
of palpus of male. 
2/3' epigynum. 




Fig. 274. Theridium frondeum.— 
Varieties of marking, enlarged 
four times. 



middle, almost covering the back, 
and a black stripe of similar width 
extends backwards on the abdomen 
for half its length. These black- 
striped individuals have all the other variations of color and 
markings. The males have all the colors and spots brighter 
and the legs longer than the females. The 
mandibles of the male are longer than those of 
the female and have at the base, in front, a low 
conical point. 

This species is found from the White Moun- t, ^, . 

^ Fig. 275. Then- 

tains to Alabama. In New England it matures dium unimacuia- 

in July and is found on bushes all summer. eight times."^^^ 




ii8 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Theridium unimaculatum. — This little species differs in color 
and markings from all the others, and may almost always be 
distinguished by the white abdomen, with a black spot in the 




Fig. 276. Web of Steatoda borealis on the face of a conglomerate rock in the cavity 
from which a pebble has dropped out. Half the real size. 

center of the back. The females are a twelfth of an inch long 
and the males smaller. The cephalothorax is orange yellow, 
with a black spot around the eyes, extending back in a point 
as far as the dorsal groove, and there is also a fine black line 



THE THERIDID^ 



119 



along the edges. The legs are orange, lighter in the female 
and darker in the male, with the first and second pairs in the 
male much stouter. The sternum is orange, with black edges. 
This spider makes a web, like the other small species, among 
small leaves and winters under dead leaves on the e:round. 



THE GENUS STEATODA 

Steatoda has the legs shorter and stouter than Theridium, 
The abdomen is oval and often a little flattened on the back. 
It is smooth and shining, the hairs being fine and scattered so 
as to be hardly visible. The thorax is thick and hard, and in 
some species marked with hard 
projections and depressions. The 
head is generally narrow, and the 
front middle eyes are in several 
species larger than the others and 
farther forward and wider apart. 
In other species all the eyes are 
about the same size. The webs 
consist of a flat sheet supported 
and held down by threads. 

Steatoda borealis. — This is a dark 
reddish-brown spider, quarter of fk 
an inch long, living among stones 
or in the corners of fences and 
window frames, generally well 

concealed by its web or nest. The cephalothorax is orange 
brown and covered with short stiff brown hairs. The head is 
one-third as wide as the thorax and a little higher, the eyes near 
together, with the front middle pair projecting forward beyond 
the mandibles (fig. 279). The legs are brown, with faint darker 
rings, and are thickly covered with hairs. The abdomen is dark 




iGS. 277, 278, 279. Stea- 
toda borealis. — 277, fe- 
male. 278, male. Both enlarged 
four times. 279, eyes. 



I20 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

chocolate brown, sometimes without any light marks on the 
upper side, but usually there is a light line running around 
the front half and another in the middle, extending back half the 
length of the abdomen and usually broken into several spots. 
The four depressed spots on the abdomen are distinctly marked. 
On the under side there is a light stripe on each side, meeting 
behind the spinnerets. The sexes are much alike in size and 
color, but the palpi of the male (fig. 278) are longer than the 
cephalothorax, and the terminal joint is very large and compli- 
cated. The web consists of a flat sheet, held out by threads in 
all directions, but is often so crowded into a corner that its 
structure is hard to understand (fig. 276). 

Steatoda guttata. — Only one-tenth of an inch long. The 
cephalothorax is high, with scattered hairs, at the base of each 
of which is a horny ridge. The cephalothorax is 
dark brown, with the legs lighter and more yel- 
low. The abdomen is nearly spherical and hard 
at the front end, where there is a ring around 
its attachment to the thorax. Sometimes the 
abdomen is bright yellow or orange, without 
markings on the back, but oftener it is partly 
brown, with two or three pairs of silvery white 
Figs. 2S0, 281. stea- spots (fig. 280). The malcs and females are alike 

toda guttata. — 280, . , 

female enlarged in sizc and color, and the palpi of the males are 
eight times. 281, ^ large, as in borcalis. They live under stones 

head and eyes .; t> ' J 

at all seasons and mature in April and May. 
Steatoda mannorata. — About a quarter of an inch long. The 
cephalothorax and legs yellowish brown. Cephalothorax smooth, 
with a few hairs. Legs covered with fine hair. The abdomen 
is usually nearly covered by an oblong dark spot darkened at 
the edges, where it is bordered by silvery white (fig. 283). The 
middle is lighter, with a central dark stripe. In some individuals 
the dark markings are broken up into four pairs of black spots 




THE THERIDID^ 



121 




Figs. 2S2, 2S3, 284. Steatoda 
marmorata. — 282,283, mark- 
ings of the abdomen of the 
female enlarged twice. 284, 
head of the male. 



partly connected with a middle line (fig. 282). The head is 

wider and the eyes smaller and farther apart than in the other 

species, and the front middle eyes are 

the smallest. The head is wider in 

males {fig. 284) than in females, and 

the mandibles larger. It lives under 

stones and leaves at all seasons and 

occasionally on bushes. 

Steatoda corollata. — This, when full 

grown, is a little larger than marmo- 
rata and darker colored, and the legs 

are shorter and stouter. The cephalo- 

thorax is dark brown, and the legs 

lighter brown, with dark rings at the 

ends of the joints. The abdomen is 

yellowish at the sides and has four or 

five irregular yellow spots, or pairs of spots, along the middle 

of a dark brown oval patch which nearly covers the middle of 

the back. In young specimens the abdomen is lighter, with 
several pairs of dark spots. The eyes 
are all nearly the same size, the front 
middle pair slightly larger and farther 
forward than the others. It lives under 
stones, like the other species. 

Steatoda triangulosa. — The female is a 
fifth of an inch to a quarter of an inch 

'^5 286 \ 

v- a c- , „ long. 1 he legs are longer and more 

Fig. 285. Steatoda corollata. ° .^^ ^ _ 

— Back of a small female sleudcr than in the Other species, the 

enlarged four times. r . • . • i ^i i i 

Fig. 286. Steatoda triangu- ^^^t pair twlCC aS loug aS the body. 

losa. — Back of female en- The ccphalothorax is oraugc brown, 

larged four times. ... , 

slightly rough in females and with short 
ridges at the base of the hairs in males. The front middle eyes 
are not larger than the others and are not as far forward as in 





122 



THE COMMOxN SPIDERS 



borealis. The legs are light yellow, with slightly darker rings 
at the ends of the joints. There are thickened brown spots at 
the base of the hairs all over the body. The abdomen is light 
yellow, with two irregular brown stripes partly 
broken into spots and sometimes connected 
together (fig. 286). The palpi of the male are 
as long as the femur of the second legs and 
are small at the end. This spider lives in 
houses, around 
window frames 
and similar 
Fig. 287. Asagena places, like bore- 

americana. — Back 




of female enlarged ullS. 
eight times. 



The ^g^ 
cocoons are 
white and hang in the web. 

Asagena americana. — This re- 
sembles Steatoda, but the abdo- 
men is longer and flatter, and 
the whole appearance more like 
some of the Drassidae. Like 
Steatoda, it is usually found 
with its web under stones. It 
is about a sixth of an inch long. 
The cephalothorax is dark red- 
dish brown, slightly rough in the 
females and with sharp points 
along the sides in the males. 
The legs are yellow brown and Figs. 288, 289, 290, 291. Latrodectus mac- 

tans. — 288, female enlarged twice. 289, 
m the males have two rows of under side of abdomen. 290, back of 

small teeth under each femur. abdomen of young female with four red 

spots. 291, markmgs of abdomen of male. 

They are stout, as in Steatoda 

marmoi'ata, and differ little in length. The abdomen is oval 

and dark brown in color, with two white spots across the 




THE THERIDID^ 



123 



middle (fig. 287). The front of the head is rounded and a 
third as wide as the thorax. The eyes are close together and 
all about the same size. The males have the cephalothorax 
larger and rougher, but in size and color resemble the females. 

Latrodectus mactans. — 
This is the largest spider 
of the family. It is some- 
times half an inch long, 
with the abdomen round 
and the whole body black, 
except a bright red spot 
underneath and one or 
more red spots over the 
spinnerets and along the 
middle of the back (figs. 
289, 290). The spots turn 
yellow or white in alcohol. 
The cephalothorax is 
about as wide as long, and 
the grooves between the 
head and thorax are deep. 
The lateral eyes are 
farther apart than usual in 
this family. The legs of 
the male are much larger 
than those of the female, 

and each joint is orange brown in the middle and black at the 
ends. The abdomen of the male has a row of red and white spots 
in the middle line, as some females do, and across the front end, 
and along the sides four pairs of stripes, red in the middle 
and white at the edges (fig. 291). The young of both sexes 
are colored somewhat like the male and, when very small, have 
very little black on them. The males vary much in size, some 




Figs. 292, 293, 294, 295. Argyrodes trigonum. — 
292, side of female enlarged eight times, the 
dotted line showing the abdomen bent dovvn- 
^vard. 293, tip of abdomen seen from above. 
294, top of cephalothorax. 295, cephalothorax 
of male. 



124 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



being only a quarter as large as the female. This spider 
makes its nest among loose stones, on plants, or in houses. 
Around its hiding place it spins a large funnel-shaped tent 
that widens into a flat or curved sheet of web, closer in 
texture toward the tube and more open toward the edges, 
spreading two or three feet over plants and stones. It is 
found all over the United States, as far north as Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire and south through Florida, the West 

Indies, and South America, as far 
as Chile. It is everywhere feared 
as poisonous and dangerous, prob- 
ably on account of its large size 
and conspicuous colors, as there is 
no good reason for considering it 
more poisonous than other spiders. 
Argyrodes trigonum. — A little yel- 
low triangular spider, with a high, 
pointed abdomen (fig. 292). Large 
females measure an eighth of an 
inch from the head to the spin- 
nerets and nearly as much from 
Fig. 296. Web of Argyrodes trigonum , soinnercts to the tin of the 

between two maple leaves. In the ^'^'^ SpmnereiS LO LUe Lip VL UlC 
middle of the web are two egg cocoons abdomCll. ScCU frOm aboVC, the 
and above them the spider. . , , , . Tin 

end of the abdomen is a little flat- 
tened and notched in the middle (fig. 293). In the female 
the part of the head around the eyes is slightly raised and the 
lower part of the front of the head carried forward a little 
beyond it (fig. 294). In the males there are two horns on the 
head, one between the eyes and one below them (fig. 295). 
The color is light yellow, sometimes with a metallic luster, as 
though gilded. On the back of the cephalothorax are three 
light brown stripes, and sometimes there are dark spots at 
the sides of the abdomen and over the spinnerets. The legs 




THE THERIDID^ 



125 



are slender, without markings, the front pair longer than the 
others. The point of the abdomen is movable and is some- 
times curved downward when the spider is disturbed in the 
web, as shown by the dotted line in fig. 292. They make webs 
like those of Theridium, between branches of shrubs (fig. 296) 
and also among the upper threads of the webs of larger spiders. 
They have been found in the webs of 
Agalena, Theridium, and Linyphia, in 
the looser parts, out of reach of the 
maker of the web. Hanging in the web, 
they look like straws or the scales of 
pine buds that have fallen into it. The 
cocoons of eggs hang in the web 
have a peculiar shape (fig. 296), the 
upper part conical and the lower 
part contracted into a narrow neck. 
The species is common in New 
England and is found all over the 
country as far south as Florida, 

Argyrodes nephilae. — This is about 
as large as Argyivdes trigomini, 
with the hump silver white and 
the under side of the body black 
or dark brown (fig. 297). The 
hump ends in a blunt round point. 
The front of the head is more nearly vertical than in trigoimm, 
and the upper part projects forward, carrying with it the front 
middle eyes. In the male there are two horns in front of the 
eyes, the upper one carrying the middle eyes of both rows 
(fig. 299). The cephalothorax is black or dark brown above 
and below. The abdomen is black on the under side, including 
the spinnerets, and there is a black middle stripe extending 
back to the tip of the hump. The basal joints of all the legs 




299 297 

Figs. 297, 29S, 299. Argyrodes nephilje. 
— 297, female. 298, male. Both en- 
larged eight times. 299, head of male. 



126 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



are white. The third and fourth legs are light colored, with a 
little brown at the ends of the joints. The second legs are 
darker, and the first pair are almost black, except at the ends. 
The males are colored like the females, but have the abdomen 
not much larger than the cephalothorax (fig. 298), and the hump 
rounded. This is a southern species and is said to live among 
the outer threads of webs of large Epeiridae. It does, however, 
make webs of its own, and I have seen the adults of both sexes 
at Charleston, S.C, in these webs away from any other spiders. 




300 



Figs. 300, 301. Argyrodes fictilium. — 300, female enlarged eight times. 
301, top of the cephalothorax. 



Ai-gyrodes fictilium. — In this species the pointed hump on the 
abdomen is much more elongated than in trigonum, in some 
spiders to eight or nine times the length of the cephalothorax 
(fig. 300). The tip is rounded in young specimens and sharp 
pointed in the larger ones. The front of the head is more 
inclined than that of trigonum (fig. 301). The colors are light 
yellow and silvery white, with three darker lines on the cephalo- 
thorax and a faint middle line on the abdomen. The legs are 
very slender and long in proportion to the long abdomen. 
Found rarely from New England to Alabama. 



THE THERIDID^ 



127 



Spintharus flavidus. — A sixth to a quarter of an inch long. 

The cephalothorax is nearly circular, and the head small and 
narrow like that of Argyrodes, with the hinder 
middle eyes very far apart. The abdomen is 
widest across the front third, where it is two- 
thirds as wide as it is long, and from here it 
tapers to a blunt point over the spinnerets 
(fig. 302). On the back the abdomen is flat 
and marked with white stripes each side, and 
between them a large pattern in 
black and red, lighter toward the 
middle, where there are two or 
three pairs of white spots. The 
legs are slender like those of 
Argyrodes, the first and fourth 
pairs the same length and twice 
as long as the second pair. The 
tibiae of the first and second legs 
are bright orange color, and the 
rest, like the cephalothorax, pale 

yellow. The male has longer legs and more 

slender abdomen. They live on low plants, and 

the web is unknown. They have been found 

from Massachusetts to Alabama. 

Euryopis funebris. — A little dark-colored spider, 

with a flat abdomen pointed behind and bor- ^ 

dered with a silver-white stripe. It is almost 

an eighth of an inch long. The cephalothorax 

is small and as wide as it is long, with the sides 

rounded. The head is half as wide as the thorax, 

a little raised and extended forward over the mandibles (fig. 303). 

The front middle eyes are largest and are farther apart and 

farther forward than the others. The abdomen is flat and 




Fig. 302. Spintha- 
rus flavidus, en- 
larged four 
times. 




Fig. 303. Euryopis 
funebris, enlarged 
four times. 




Fig. 304. Theridula 
sphaerula, en- 
larged four times. 



128 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



nearly as wide in the middle as it is long, and tapers to a point 
behind. The general color is black or dark gray. The cephalo- 
thorax is yellowish under the abdomen and black in front. The 
abdomen has a bright silvery stripe around the hinder half, 
and inside this the color is black, broken by light spots in the 
middle. The legs and palpi are light yellow, with dark rings on 

the ends of the joints. The fourth 
legs are longest. It is shaken 
from bushes in summer, or from 
dead leaves on the ground in 
winter, and its web is unknown. 
It is found from the White 
Mountains to Alabama. 

Theridula sphaerula. — This is a 
very distinct and easily recog- 
nized species, although it is less 
than a tenth of an inch long 
(fig. 304). The cephalothorax is 
yellow, with a wide black stripe 
in the middle. The abdomen is 
high and round and wider than 
it is long ; it is yellowish gray, 
with a greenish white spot in the 
middle and a black spot on a 
slight elevation at each side. There is also a black spot 
around the spinnerets. The legs are light yellow. In the 
male the light parts of the cephalothorax and legs are orange 
color, and the markings of the abdomen less distinct than in 
the female. It lives on bushes all over the country. 

Pholcus phalangioides. • — This is a large pale spider, with legs 
so long that it is often confounded with Phalangium, under the 
nickname of "daddy longlegs." The body is quarter of an 
inch long, and the longest legs two inches. The abdomen is 




Fig. 305. Pholcus phalangioides. — A 
young female in a natural position 
hanging in its web. 



THE THERIDID^ 



129 



about three times as long as wide and nearly straight at the 

sides unless full of eggs. The cephalothorax is nearly round 

and fiat behind. Around the eyes the head is raised and in 

the males separated at the sides from the rest of the head. 

The middle pair of eyes are not higher than the tops of the 

lower lateral eyes. The mandibles are nearly as high as the 

front of the head, and in the males they have a small conical 

tooth near the base. The color is pale brown, covered with 

fine gray hairs, and the whole body and legs are translucent. 

The head is a little darker 

around the eyes, and there 

is a large gray patch in the 

middle of the cephalothorax. 

The abdomen is marked only 

by a translucent middle line 

over the dorsal vessel. This 

is a house spider, common 

in America and Europe, and 

probably imported. It lives 

in cellars where there is but 

little light and makes large, 

loose, flat webs, horizontal 

where there is a convenient 

place, or irregular to fit into 

surrounding objects (fig. 308). 

The spider hangs in the web 

with the abdomen directed 

upward, and when alarmed 

swings itself around rapidly 

so that it can hardly be seen. 

The egg cocoon is so thin that it does not conceal the eggs 

and is carried about in the spider's mandibles until the young 

hatch out. 




Figs. 306, 307. Pholcus 
phalangioides. — 306, 
female and male natu- 
ral size, and cephalo- 
thorax of female much 
enlarged. 307, mandi- 
bles of male. 



I30 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Pholcus cornutus. — A small species from the southern states, 
with a body about a tenth of an inch long and the legs from 
half to three-quarters of an inch. The abdomen is humped on 
the back and short on the under side, so that seen from the side 
it is nearly triangular (fig. 309). The cephalothorax is as wide 
as long and nearly circular. The head is small and marked by 




Fig. 30S. Web of Pholcus phalangioides between two shelves in a cellar. 



a shallow groove on each side. In front it is higher than wide 
and inclined a little forward toward the mandibles. The eyes 
(fig. 310) are raised a little from the head, three large eyes 
almost touching each other in a group on each side, and a small 
pair between them just above the lower eyes of the larger 
groups. The mandibles are three-quarters as high as the head, 
with a small tooth on the inner corners and, in the males, a 



THE THERIDID.^ 



131 



long curved horn projecting forward near the base of each 
mandible (fig. 311). The legs are very slender and trans- 
parent, slightly colored brown, with 
darker rings at the ends of the femur 
and tibia. There is a dark mark 
around the eyes and head, forming 
behind them a middle line that widens 
toward the hinder end of the cephalo- 
thorax. The abdomen is gray, marked 
on the upper side with three or four 
pairs of darker spots and behind with 
lighter spots, somewhat like Tlicridimn 
tepidariorum. 
Scy tode s 
thoracica. — 
This is a very 
peculiar 
spider, prob- 
ably imported 




Figs. 309, 310, 311. Pholcus cor- 
nutus. — 309, side of female 
enlarged four times. 310, back 
of female. 311, front of man- 
dibles of male, showing the 
curved horns. 



in cellars and closets. 




from Europe, and found 
It is about quarter of an 
inch long when full grown. The cephalothorax 
and abdomen are both round and nearly of the 
same size. The cephalothorax is low and nar- 
row in front and slopes upward to the highest 
point opposite the third legs (fig. 313), and from 
there falls abruptly behind. The eyes are six in 
number, in three pairs, the middle pair lowest 
and the lateral pairs wide apart at the sides of 
the head (fig. 312). The front of the figs. 312, 313. 
head below the eyes projects forward 
beyond the mandibles. The legs are 
slender and tapering, the tarsus and metatarsus not more than 




Scytodes thora- 
cica. — 312, female enlarged eight 
times. 313, side of cephalothorax. 



132 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



half as thick as the tibia. The color is pale yellow or white, 
with black or gray spots, in a regular pattern on the cephalo- 
thorax and abdomen, and in rings on the legs. 

Mimetus interfector. — This is about the 
same size and color as Theridium tcpida- 
riorujii, but it has a round and Epeira-like 
abdomen and spiny legs like Epeira or 
Linyphia. The length is nearly a quarter 
of an inch. The cephalothorax is one and 
a half times as long as wide, widest behind 
and narrow in front (fig. 314). The man- 
dibles are long and dark colored, except 
a spot near the base. The cephalothorax 
is whitish, with a stripe of brown from 
the eyes to the dorsal groove. The abdo- 
men is small, widest in front, like that of 
Epeira ajignlata, with two prominent cor- 
ners. The markings are also like Epeira, 
— a central stripe, with dark spots along 
the edges (figs. 314, 315). The color is 
gray and brown in the darker parts. The 
legs are light yellow, with dark rings at 
the ends of 
the joints. 
It lives on 
bushes and 
occasionally on houses and fences, 
where it has been found in webs 
among those of Thcridimn tepida- 
riorum. 

Ero thoracica. — This spider resem- 
bles the young of TJicridiuvi tcpidariornni, but the colors are 
brighter, and the hairs longer and coarser. It is an eighth to 




Figs. 314, 315. Mimetus 
interfector, enlarged four 
times, showing markings 
of two different individ- 
uals. 




Figs. 316, 317. Ero thoracica. — 316, 
back of female enlarged eight times. 
■\\i, side of female. 



THE THERIDIDyE 133 

a sixth of an inch long. The cephalothorax is nearly as high 
in the middle as it is long and slopes at a sharp angle under 
the front of the abdomen (fig. 317). The head is lower than the 
middle of the thorax, and the front middle eyes project beyond 
the mandibles. The abdomen is as high as long and has a pair 
of humps on the highest part. The cephalothorax is light 
yellow, with a dark irregular stripe on each side and a middle 
line crossed by a crescent-shaped mark on the highest part. 
The abdomen is white, with brown spots of various shapes. 
The front half of each hump is dark brown, and a dark line 
extends from there down the sides (fig. 316). At the back of 
the abdomen are several transverse stripes, which are some- 
times reddish. Stiff brown hairs are scattered all over the 
abdomen. The legs are ringed with brown and yellow, and 
have coarse brown hairs and long spines on the tibia and tarsus, 
which is unusual in this family. It is found under stones and 
in winter under leaves in woods. It lives also in Europe. 



THE LINYPHIAD^ 

The Linyphiadae consist of a great number of species of small 
spiders living, for the most part, in shady woods, among the 
lower branches of plants, under leaves, and in caves and cellars. 
They differ from the Therididag generally in having the body 
more elongated, the legs stouter and with more spines, the 
mandibles larger and stronger and furnished with teeth around 
the claw, and the maxillae straighter and not inclined inward 
toward the labium. There are two groups among them, — Liny- 
phia and its allies, which are comparatively large and some of 
which live in the open woods, with large cobwebs, and Erigone 
and its allies, which are all very small spiders, living mostly in 
short grass, dead leav^es, and moss. The latter usually have 
narrower bodies and stouter legs, resembling the Drassidae. 
Their colors are generally plain and dull, and the females are 
difficult to distinguish from each other, while the males often 
have peculiar modifications of the head and proportionally very 
large and complicated palpi. 

The webs usually have a large flat sheet, supported by threads 
above and below, under which the spider lives. Some species 
have the sheet of web curved upward or downward. LiiiypJiia 
marginata forms a dome-shaped web four or five inches in 
diameter. 

THE GENUS LINYPHIA 

These spiders vary in size like the species of Theridium, from 
a quarter of an inch to a tenth of an inch long. In appear- 
ance they differ greatly from Theridium ; the cephalothorax is 

134 



THE LINYPHIADyE 135 

longer and higher in front, the legs are long and slender, with 
distinct spines, and the abdomen is sometimes a little flattened 
on the back as in Steatoda, but oftener high in front and a little 
pointed toward the spinnerets. The sexes differ little in size. 



Fig. 31S. Web of Linyphia marginata. Half the real size. 

but often in color and markings. The palpal organs and the 
terminal joints of the palpi of the males are very large and 
complicated, and in the smaller species form the best means of 
distinocuishinsT them. There are a great number of minute 



136 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




species of Microneta, Bathyphantes, and other allied genera, 
but only the larger and more common are here described. 

Linyphia marginata. — This is one of the most common web 
spiders in shady woods all through the summer. It is a sixth 
of an inch long, with slender legs, the longest of which are 
usually half an inch. The cephalothorax is two-thirds as wide 
as long, the middle of it brown and the 
edges light. The abdomen is flat on top 
and widest and thickest behind, the colors 
light yellow and purplish brown (fig. 319). 
In the middle there is a dark stripe, con- 
sisting usually of three parts united by a 
narrow line, and behind this is another 
dark spot. At the sides are several dark 
stripes, the front ones lengthwise and the 
hinder vertical, all connected with the dark 
color of the under side. The legs are 
light yellow without markings, and the 
hairs and spines fine and not easily seen. 
In the males all the colors are darker and 
the abdomen narrower, with only a few 
light marks at the sides. This spider has 
no nest, but lives all the time in the 
middle of its web. It matures in June, and 
the young brood are common in their 
small webs in August and September. 

The web of L. marginata (fig. 318) is in the form of a dome 
four or five inches in diameter, hung between rocks and plants, 
seldom much concealed by leaves. The threads are fine, and 
the web so transparent that it easily escapes notice unless 
the sun shines upon it. The meshes are larger than in L. phry- 
giana and other flat web-making species. The depth and width 
of the dome depend somewhat on the shape of the opening 




319 

Figs. 319, 320. Linyphia 
marginata. — 319, female 
enlarged eight times, 
showing markings of the 
baclc. 320, side of abdo- 
men. 



THE LINYPHIAD/E 



137 



in which it is made, and the number and length of the sup- 
porting threads vary according to the surroundings. The 
spider stands apparently all the time under the top of the 
dome. Insects flying near touch the threads above the dome 
and, their flight being broken, drop down among closer threads 
and, finally, to the dome itself, where they are caught by the 
spider and taken through the meshes. Remains of insects and 
other rubbish are cut loose from the web and dropped. The 




Fig. 321. Beginning of a web of Linyphia marginata. 

webs seem to be used for a long time, but if they are injured 
a new one is soon made, either in the night or day, and the 
remains of several old webs are often seen hanging flat and 
torn below a new one. The dome is begun at the top and 
extended downward by inclined threads, an inch or two long, 
which are crossed by shorter threads in all directions (fig. 321). 
The spider works very rapidly, but I have never seen a dome 
finished, the spider always working a few minutes and then 
resting a long time. 



138 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

Linyphia communis. — A little smaller than marginata, with 
legs a little shorter. The colors are the same light yellow and 
purplish brown, but the markings are distinctly different. The 
cephalothorax is uniform light brownish yellow. The middle 




Fig. 322. Web of Linyphia communis between the branches of a spruce tree. 
Half the real size. 

stripe of the abdomen extends the whole length of the upper 
side and connects with several narrow brown stripes that extend 
down the sides (fig. 323). The abdomen is more regularly oval 
and less enlarged behind than in marginata, but the upper part 
extends back farther over the spinnerets. The under side is 



THE LINYPHIAD^ 



139 




communis. — 323, back 
of female enlarged eight 
times. 324, profile of 
male. 



dark brown. The male is smaller than the female, with the 
head higher and the abdomen narrower. The palpi of the 
male are unusually small for the genus (fig. 324). The web of 
cointniinis (fig. 322) consists of a horizontal sheet, convex below 
and supported by threads above. Below this, about an inch 
distant, is another sheet of web. Insects flying between the 
upper threads fall down to the sheet below and are taken 
through by the spider, as they 
are in the dome of marginata. 

Lin3rphia mandibulata. — A little 
larger than L. com^nunis and 
marginata, with the head longer 
and more distinct from the Figs. 323, 324. Linyphia 
thorax, and the abdomen larger 
and flattened on the top (figs. 
326, 327). The length is about 
a sixth of an inch. The cephalothorax is dark 
orange brown, and the legs a lighter shade of the 
same color. The length of the legs is about as in 
cotmminis, shorter than viargijiata and pJirygiana. 
The abdomen is dark brown, often almost black, 
with several white spots, usually two across the front end and 
several others around the sides (fig. 326), sometimes forming a 
complete light stripe around the middle. In the males the 
abdomen is narrow, and the only markings are usually the two 
spots on the front end. The cei^halothorax of the male is long 
and narrow ; the head is extended forward, and the mandibles 
inclined backward toward the maxillae. The mandibles are 
more than half as long as the cephalothorax and widened at the 
ends, with four teeth on the inner corner (fig. 329). On the inner 
side of the mandibles, near the middle, is a large blunt tooth. 

The webs are flat and near the ground, on short grass and 
leaves and across little hollows in the sod (fig. 325). The webs 




I40 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



are not as large as those of pJirygiana, and the spider has no 
nest, but stands always in the web and drops suddenly when 
alarmed. It lives all over the eastern part of the country and 
resembles closely the Linyphia pnsilla of Europe. 

Linyphia coccinea. — About a sixth of an inch long and bright 
red and orange color. The size and length of legs are about 




Fir.. T- 



Web of young Linyphia mandibulata in short grass near the ground. 
About the real size. 



the same as in cojuDiunis. The legs are light orange, the 
cephalothorax a deeper shade of the same color, and the abdo- 
men light red. The palpi have the ends black, and the legs 
are sometimes streaked with black. The hinder middle eyes are 



THE LINYPHIAD/E 



141 



twice as large as 

the others and 

twice as far apart 

as the front middle 

pair. The space 

between and 

around the middle 

eyes is black. The 

top of the abdo- 
men is a little flat- 
tened and extended 

back in a blunt 

black point over 

the spinnerets (fig. 

330). The male 

(fig. 331) differs lit- 
tle from the female 

except in the more 

slender abdomen 

and longer legs. 

The male palpi are 

as long as those of the female and only a little thickened at the 

ends. The blackened point on the end of the abdomen is less 

distinct in the male than the female. 
The web is a little concave, not as 
deep as that of inarginata and with 
smaller meshes. It is made among 
low plants. This is a common 
species in the South. 

Linyphia phrygiana. — This is one 

of the most common species and 

Linyphia coccinea. — Hvcs both in the woods and around 

331, male enlarged 




Figs. 326, 327, 328, 329. Linyphia mandibulata. — 326, mark- 
ings of abdomen of female enlarged eight times. 327, side 
of abdomen. 328, cephalothora.x and palpus of male. 329, 
mandibles of male. 




Figs. 330, 331. 
330, female, 
twelve times. 



houses. It is larger than inaj'gitiata 



142 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



and coninuinis, measuring a fifth of an inch in length. The 
cephalothorax is light yellow, with a black line in the middle, 
forked at the front end, and another at the sides near the edge 
of the thorax. The legs are light yellow, with a dark ring at 
the end of each joint and at the middle of each tibia and meta- 
tarsus. The legs are also marked with dark spots, especially 




Fig. 332. Web of Lin\ phia phrygiana in a barberry bush. The spider stood under 
the upper part of the inclined sheet close to the stem. 

on the femora, and the spines are black and conspicuous. The 
abdomen is yellowish, with brown spots at the sides and beneath, 
and along the middle of the back is a dark brown or red herring- 
bone stripe (fig. 333). The head of the male is higher than 
that of the female and has a crest of stiff hairs. The male palpi 
(fig. 334) have a long spur on the patella and have the end small, 



thp: linyphiad^ 



143 





333 334 

Figs. ^^3^ 334- Linyphia phry- 
giana. — 333, markings of abdo- 
men enlarged eight times. 334, 
palpus of male. 



like coimminis. The web (fig. 332) is a large flat sheet, some- 
times over a foot across. A corner of it usually runs under a 
stone or other hiding place, and here the spider stands, often 
making a little tent in connection with the web. 
Linyphia (Stemonyphantes) trilineata. — About a 
quarter of an inch long, with a large oval abdomen 
and comparatively short legs. The 
color is light yellowish gray, the 
cephalothorax with three dark lines, 
and the abdomen with three rows of 
dark spots partly connected in lines. 
The legs are marked with dark rings 
on the ends and middle of the joints, 
more distinctly on the under than on 
the upper side. The sternum is light 
in the middle and black around the 
edge, and the abdomen has irregular black spots at the sides 
and beneath. The male has longer legs and wider thorax and 
smaller abdomen. It lives under stones and logs and winters 
under leaves in the woods. It is common 
both in this country and Europe. 

Linyphia (Bathyphantes) nebulosa. — Length a 
sixth of an inch. Color light brownish yellow, 
with gray markings (fig. 338). Some are 
almost white, and others are dark, with the 
black spots covering a large part of the body. 
The cephalothorax is dark on the edges and 
has a dark middle stripe, forked toward the 
eyes. The abdomen has six or seven pairs of 
irregular dark spots, more or less connected with a dark middle 
line. The under side of abdomen and sternum have black spots 
which, in dark individuals, run together, making these parts 
entirely black. The legs have dark rings on the ends and 




Fig. 335. Linyphia 
trilineata. — Mark- 
ings of abdomen en- 
larged eight times. 



144 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 





middle of the femora 
and tibiae. The spines 
are long and darker than 
the skin. The epigy- 
num is folded twice, so 
that only part of it is seen ex- 
tending out from the under side 
of the abdomen (figs. 340, 341). 
The palpus of the male (fig. 
339) has large and complicated 
Figs. 336,337,338. Liny- appendages at the end. In 
phia nebuiosa. — 336, nrgneral shape it is rounder than 

male. 337, female en- *=* '■ 

larged t wei ve ti mes. in the next spccies, and the 

•1^8, markings of back ., ^^11 r ^i. ^ 

of abdomen. angle at the base of the tarsus 

is less prominent. This spider 
is common in cellars and other damp and shady 
places about houses. It is common in Europe and is perhaps 
imported. The web is flat, 
like that of L. pJirygiana, and 
often large for the size of the 
spider, sometimes covering a 
pail or box a foot wide. 

Linjrphia (Bathyphantes) minuta. 
— One-eighth of an inch long, 
a little smaller than nebuiosa. 
The cephalothorax is yel- 
lowish brown, darker at 
the edges, but without any 
middle line. The dark 
markings of the abdomen 

nearly cover it, so that it 340 341 

appears dark gray with Fi^s. 339, 340, 341. i.inyphia nebuiosa. — 339, 

. palpus of male. 340, epigvnum from below. 

light markmgS instead of 341, epigymim from the right side. 




tism, 




THE LINYPHIAD^ 



145 




light with dark 



mark- 



ings, as in nebulosa. The 
legs are light brownish 
yellow, with dark rings 
on the ends and middle 
of the femora and tibiae. 
The epigynum is folded twice, as in nebu- 
losa (fig. 343). The male palpi (fig. 344) 
have a general resemblance to those of 
nebulosa, but there are some distinct 
differences. The tarsal hook is very 
large and has a longer and narrower 
point than nebulosa. The tarsus has on 
the outer side near the base a conical 
point roughened with short ridges. This 
is more prominent in this species than in 
nebulosa. It lives in cellars and similar 
places often in company with nebulosa. 

Linjrphia (Drapetisca) socialis. — This very 
distinct species is marked with gray and 
white and is often found on 
the bark of trees without any 
web. It is a tenth to an eighth 
of an inch in length. The 
cephalothorax is white with 
black edges, a black spot in 
front under the eyes, and a 
black mark in the middle, from 
which indistinct lines radiate 

toward the edge. The abdo- 
men k wir1p<5t Incf hehind the Figs. 345, 346, 347. Linyphia socialis.— 

men is widest just oenina tne ,^^^ markings of back of abdomen en- 
middle (fig. 345). It is white, larged eight times. 346, side of female. 
. 347, front of female showing eves, man- 

mottled With gray, and has a dibies, and paipi. 



344 
Figs. 342, 343, 344. Liny- 
phia minuta. — 342, side 
of abdomen of female. 
343' epigynum. 344, end 
of palpus of male. 




146 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




Linyphia in- 



black stripe on each side and several pairs of black spots in the 
middle, connected with a middle line. The legs are white, with 

a gray ring at the end and middle of 
each joint. The spines are long on the 
legs and palpi (fig. 347). The mandi- 
bles have an oblique dark stripe and 
several long hairs in front and a row 
of teeth in front of the claw. The 
epigynum (fig. 346) is large and ex- 
tends obliquely backward away from 
the abdomen and curves inward again 
at the end. It lives all over the 
northern part of this country and 
Europe, under leaves and sometimes 
on trees, where it is occasionally found 

signls. — 348rfemale enlarged OU the bark without any WCb. 

twelve times. ■340, side of abdo- t • _!.• /tt«i _i.. \ •_ • • a 

(f , ■^^' Linyphia (Helophora) insignis. — An 

men of female. 350, epigynum. ^ '^ \ r / & 

eighth of an inch long, as long as 
socialis, but more slender. The cephalothorax and legs are 
light yellow, and the abdomen gray or white, some- 
times without markings and sometimes 
with gray stripes at the sides and two 
or three pairs of gray 
marks across the hinder 
half (fig. 348). The cepha- 
lothorax of the male is 
twice as wide across the 
middle as at the head. 
The legs are without 
markings. The epigynum 
(fig. 350) is long and 
straight, extending back- 
ward close to the abdomen for half its length. The tibia 




Figs. 351, 352, 353. Linyphia concolor. — 351, end 
of palpus of male. 352, side of epigynum. 353, 
epigynum from below. 



THE LINYPHIAD.'E 



147 



of the palpal organ has a short, pointed process, extending 
directly outward from the side (fig. 348). They live in flat 
webs among low plants. 

Linyphia (Diplostyla) concolor. — About a twelfth of an inch 
long, a little smaller than nigrina, with long slender legs, and 
the abdomen slightly pointed toward the spinnerets and not 
much larger than the cephalothorax. The color is light yellow 




Figs. 354, 355, 356, 357, 358. Linyphia nigrina. — 354, side of 
355 male. 355, markings of back of female. 356, end of palpus 

of male. 357, 358, epigynum. 

brown, the abdomen gray without any markings. The epigy- 
num (figs. 352, 353) has a long, slender, flexible process on the 
outer edge that extends backward to the middle of the abdo- 
men, and under it is another shorter one not easily seen. The 
tarsus of the male palpus (fig. 351) is longer and more tapering 
than that of nigrina. Adults of both sexes are common under 
leaves in winter all over the northern part of the country. 

Linyphia (Diplostyla) nigrina. — A tenth of an inch long. 
Cephalothorax and legs light yellow brown. Abdomen dark 



148 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



gray or black, with five or six transverse light markings, usu- 
ally in the male and often in the female broken into pairs of 
spots (fig. 355). The abdomen is high in front and a little 
pointed behind (fig. 354). The epigynum (figs. 356, 357) has 
two flexible processes, one over the other, extending backward, 
the tip of the inner one extending beyond the outer. The 
tarsus of the male palpus (fig. 356) is short and truncated, with 
its tube twisted in a circle around the end. It lives under 
leaves in winter. 

THE GENUS ERIGONE 

The Erigones are all very small spiders, and for this reason 
few of them will be described. They live, for the most part, 
near the ground in grass, moss, and dead leaves, with small 




Fig. 359. Web of Erigone dentigera among stems of grass close to the ground. 
About the real size. 



webs like those of Linyphia, and are seldom seen unless care- 
fully searched for. There is one season of the year, however, 
when the Erigones appear in immense numbers. This is 
during: the fine weather that comes after the first frosts in 



THE LINYPHIAD/E 



149 



October and November, when they, in company with the 
young of many larger kinds of spiders, come to the tops of 
posts and fences and, turning their spinnerets upward, allow 
threads to be drawn out by ascending currents of air, until 
sometimes the 
spiders are lifted 
off their feet and 
carried long dis- 
tances. Though 
not so easily seen, 
the same perform- 
ance is going on at 
the tops of grass 
and bushes, and at 
times the whole 
country is covered 
with threads of silk, 
and the threads in 
the air tangle to- 
gether into flakes, 
which at length 

fall, sometimes from great heights. This appearance is called 
in England "gossamer" and in Germany the "flying summer" 
and the "old woman's summer." Why the spiders spin the 
thread and what use it is to them to be blown about are 
unknown. At the time of the autumn flights great numbers 
of these spiders may be seen on fences and doorsteps in city 
streets wherever there is a neighboring park or grass plat, and 
the spiders probably live the rest of the year among this grass 
near the ground. 

Erigone longipalpis and dentigera. — These spiders are a tenth 
of an inch to a twentieth of an inch long and generally dark 
brown in color, with the cephalothorax smooth and shining. 




Fig. 360. Erigone dentigera trying to fly. Enlarged eight 
times. From a photograph on Boston Common. 



ISO 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



In some, especially the larger males, the cephalothorax is 
bright orange and the legs partly of the same color. The 
females vary considerably in size, but are otherwise much alike. 

The peculiarities are in the males. 
The head is about half the length of 
the cephalothorax and abruptly raised 
and rounded on the top (fig. 361). 
Along the sides of the thorax are 
small pointed teeth of various sizes 
in a single irregular row (fig. 362). 
The mandibles are very much thick- 
ened in the middle and have a row of 
teeth on the front outer side (fig. 364). 
The palpi of the males are sometimes 
as long as the whole body and of a 
complicated shape. The femur is 
curved upward and forward and has 
a row of little teeth on the under side. 
The patella and tibia are together 
about as long as the femur. The 
patella has at the end a straight tooth 
directed downward with a short point 
(fig. 361). The tibia is widened at the 
male. 362 back of cephaiotho- g^j where it Spreads around the base 

rax of male enlarged sixteen '■ 

times. 363, female. 364, man- of the tarsus. The maxillas are much 




Figs, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365. Eri- 
gone dentigera. — 361, side of 



dible of male, 
male. 



-iGi, maxilla of 



thickened and the bases of the palpi 
spread wide apart (fig. 365). The 
palpi are usually carried doubled up in front of the head, with 
the curved ends of the femora just below the eyes and the palpal 
organs over the ends of the mandibles. The legs of Erigone 
are only moderately long, and they walk easily, like the small 
Drassidae. They move slowly and are not easily frightened, so 
that at the time of flying they can be closely watched. 



THE LINYPHIAD^ 



151 



Erigone autumnalis. — This is one of the few species of Eri- 
gone that can be distinctly separated from the others. It lives 
in the same places and is found with lojigipalpis 
in the autumn flights. It is only a twentieth of 
an inch long, but can be distinguished 
by its light color and bright yellow 
head. The palpi of the males have 
the tibia shorter than the patella and 
the tooth on the patella turned more 
forward than in longipalpis, with a 
longer and sharper point tapering 
from the base to the tip (fig. 367). 
Ceratinella laetabilis. — This is about 
the same size as fissiceps, — a six- 
teenth of an inch long, — but much 
darker colored, and the males do not 
have horns or humps on the head, 
sternum are dark 
The thick- 




367 

Figs. 366, 367. Erigone autumna- 
lis. — 366, under side of cephalo- 
thorax of male. 367, palpus of 
male. 



The cephalothorax and 
brown, and the legs dark orange. 
ened circle on the abdomen (fig. 
orange brown and the thinner 
parts gray. In the female the 
thick circle is usually wanting 
and the whole abdomen dark 
gray, with lighter spots around 
the muscular marks. There are 
also hardened spots around the 
stem of the abdomen and under 
the spinnerets in both sexes. 
The head is slightly elevated 
behind the eyes, a little more 
in the male than in the female. 
The male palpi (figs. 369, 370) 



368) is dark 




369 368 

Figs. 368, 369, 370. Ceratinella laetabilis. 
— 368, outline of side of female en- 
larged sixteen times. 369, 370, end of 
male palpus. 



152 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



are shorter and stouter than those oi fissiccps. It lives in dead 
leaves and moss, sometimes under stones, and is sometimes 
found flying in the autumn. 

Ceratinella fissiceps. — These little spiders are 
among the smallest species, 
measuring only a sixteenth of an 
inch in length. The cephalotho- 
rax and abdomen are short and 
round, and the abdomen has a 
round thickened spot on the back, 
more deeply orange colored than 
the part around it. The head is 
black around the eyes, and a black 
line extends backward half the 




Fuis. 



372 371 

371, 372, 373. Ceratinella fissiceps. length of the ccphalothorax. The 



— 371, varieties in the form of the head. 
372, 373i palpus of male. 



head of the male extends forward 
over the mandibles, carrying with 

it the front middle eyes, and above it is a rounded hump with 

the hind middle eyes. The 

pairs of lateral eyes are 

opposite the crease between 

the humps (figs. 371). The 

female has at the same point 

a slight crease across the 

head and an elevation before 

and behind it. They are 

very common on low bushes 

in summer and under leaves 

in winter, and are occasion- 
ally seen in the autumn 

flio-hts 

'^ ' Figs. 374, 375, 376. Cornicularia directa. — 

Cornicularia directa. The 374^ male enlarged sixteen times. 375, head 

, _ ^ , ^ , of male showing the double horn. 376. head 

males and females are of the „f male from above. 




THE LINYPHIAD/E 



153 




same size and about a twelfth of an inch long. The cephalo- 
thorax is brown, varying in different individuals. The abdomen 
is gray, with the muscular spots lighter than the rest. The 
cephalothorax is long, narrowing gradually toward the head. 
In the males there is a slender horn extending forward between 
the eyes, a little thickened at the end and covered on the upper 
side with stiff hairs in rows (fig. '})76). Under this horn is a 
smaller one about half as long and close against it (fig. 375). 
In females the horns 
are absent, but the shape 
of the head and arrange- 
ment of the eyes are the 
same, except that the 
eyes are closer together. 
There are several other species of Cornicu- 
laria, some with similar horns and others 
with single horns on the heads of the 
males. They are found under leaves in 
winter, on plants and fences, and among 
the flying spiders in autumn. 

^ Figs. 377, 37S. Ceratinopsis 

Ceratinopsis interpres. — Length about a interpres. — 377, head of 
tenth of an inch. Color bright orange, "^^^^^^^'/^^ '"'^ "^ P''p"' 
with a little black around the eyes and the 

spinnerets. In the female the height of the head equals the 
length of the mandibles, and in males it is greater. The size of 
the sexes is about the same. The upper middle eyes are a little 
larger and farther apart than the front middle pair, and between 
them is a flattened space covered with stiff black hairs, longer 
in the male than in the female (fig. 377). The male palpi have 
the femur as thick as the femur of the first leg and the tibia 
very short and wide, with a little recurved point on the front 
edge. They live on low bushes in summer and under leaves 
in winter. 




THE EPEIRID^ 

The Epeiridae are the makers of the familiar round cobwebs. 
Like the Therididse and the Linyphiadae, they live always in 
their webs or nests back downward or, when in the round web, 
head downward. The cephalothorax is generally short, as in 
Therididae, and low and wide in front, with the eyes near the 
front edge, the lateral pairs close together and farther from 
the middle eyes than the latter are from each other. The 
mandibles are large and strong. The maxillae are short, often 
as short as wide, and parallel or a little divergent and rounded 
at the ends, never pointed or turned inward. The labium is 
shorter than wide and rounded or slightly pointed at the end. 
The legs are usually long and, more commonly than in the 
other cobweb spiders, stout and furnished with spines. 

Most of the common species belong to the genus Epeira 
and its allies, having rounded abdomens and stout legs, some 
of them with humps and spines and peculiar angular forms of 
the abdomen. The colors are often bright, and those of the 
abdomen arranged in a triangular or leaf-shaped pattern. In 
Meta (p. 190) and Argyroepeira (p. 191) the abdomen is more 
elongated and the form and marking more like Linyphia. In 
Tetragnatha (p. 201) the whole body is long and slender, the 
abdomen several times as long as the cephalothorax, and the 
maxillas and mandibles, especially in the males, much elongated. 
The colors are more uniform and the markings faint, usually 
light gray, yellow, or green, like the plants among which they 
live. The round webs of the Epeiridae consist of a number 
of radiating lines, varying in different species from a dozen to 
seventy, crossed by two spirals, — an inner spiral that begins 

154 



THE EPEIRID/E 



155 



in the center and winds outward, and an outer spiral that begins 
at the edge of the web and winds inward. The inner spiral is 
made of smooth thread like the rays, and dust will not stick 
to it. The outer spiral is made of more elastic and sticky 
thread, which, when it is fresh, is covered with fine drops of 
a sticky liquid. In the finished web (figs. 379, 380) the outer 




Fig. 379. Web of Epeira strix covered with dew hanging between the rails of a fence. 
One-third the real size. 



spiral covers three-quarters or more of the diameter and the 
inner spiral a quarter or less, but in the unfinished web (fig. 381), 
before the sticky thread is put in, the inner spiral covers nearly 
the whole of it and is cut out, piece by piece, to make room for 
the outer spiral. 

In beginning a web, after the radiating threads are finished, 
the spider fastens them more firmly at the center and corrects 



156 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

the distances between them by several short, irregular threads 
(fig. 379) and then begins the inner spiral with the turns, at first 
close together and then widening, in some species gradually, in 
others suddenly, until they are as far apart as the spider can 




Fig. -580. Finished web of Epeira sclopetaria witli unusually small number of rays. The 
spider hangs in the center, head downward, in its customary position. The lower half 
of the web is wider than the upper half, as it usually is. The cross threads with tri- 
angles at the ends are caused by two or more threads sticking together in the middle. 

reach with the spinnerets on one and the front feet on the next, 
and so goes on nearly to the outside of the web, where it stops 
abruptly (fig. 381). The spider usually rests a moment and 
then begins, sometimes at another part of the web, the outer 



THE EPEIRID^ 157 

sticky spiral. In the outermost parts of the web it usually 
forms several loops (fig. 381, /; to/), filling in the corners until 
it approaches the inner spiral and finds room to pass completely 




Fig. 381. Unfinished web of Epeira sclopetaria showing the completed inner spiral 
ending at a. The outer spiral began at b, went to c, and returned to d; turned 
and went to c, and then to/; and from there nearly around the web to g. From 
^ it returned to tlie lower part of the web and made loops at i and/, and then 
started around the web until it was stopped at k. 

around the web. As soon as the inner spiral is found in the 
way a part of it is cut out, and by the time the outer spiral is 
finished the inner is reduced to the small and close portion 
near the center. 



158 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

While the temporary spirals are made as far apart as possible, 
the threads of the outer spiral are placed as close together as 
they can be without danger of their sticking to each other, 
and usually a little closer together toward the center of the 
web than they are at the outside. In fastening this thread to 
the rays of the web the spider first feels for the last thread 
with the first and second feet, and, having found it, turns the 
body slightly around and grasps the ray with the nearest foot 
of the fourth pair at a short distance from the point where the 
last thread crosses. After taking hold of the ray with the 
fourth foot, the spider turns down the abdomen so as to place 
the spinnerets against the ray and fastens the thread to it, at 
the same time holding the thread off with the other fourth foot 
to prevent its sticking to anything around it. The whole 
making of the web seems to be done entirely by feeling and 
is done as well in the dark as in daylight. 

When the spider is active and the food supply good, a 
fresh web is made every day, the old one being torn down and 
thrown away. In tearing down a web (fig. 382) the spider 
walks out from the center on one of the rays and gathers in 
what web he can reach with the front feet, chews it into a 
ball, and drops it ; then, having put in new rays in the 
cleared space, he goes to another part of the web and tears 
down another piece. 

The variations between the webs of different species are 
chiefly in the central portion. In the webs of Jiortornni 
(p. 191), gibberosa (p. 177), and placida (p. 178), which spend 
most of their time in the web, the close part of the inner spiral 
is very large, circular, and finely finished, usually showing no 
trace of the wide temporary spirals. The number of rays is 
very large, and there is a wide clear space between the inner 
and outer spirals. In Argiope the inner spiral is very large 
and widens gradually until it almost touches the outer spiral. 



THE EPEIRID^ 



159 



It has a closely woven mat in the center and two zigzag bands 
of white silk extending up and down. 

The webs of Tetragnatha, Meta, and Acrosoma have a hole 
in the middle, the irregular center being entirely removed. 




Fig. 382. Epeira sclopetaria tearing down an old web and beginning a new one. Five 
new rays have been made and a quarter of the old web remains at the right. 

Insnlaris and trifoliiim live always in tent-shaped nests, with a 
thread, or several threads, leading to the center of the web. 
Globosa, labyrinthea, and Zilla have a similar thread from 
nest to web, and leave open a segment of the web through 
which it passes. 



i6o 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Insects flying through the web strike the sticky threads 
and, trying to free themselves, fall against others. The spider 
at the center of the web feels the movements of the insect 
and goes toward it by the nearest ray and, drawing out silk 
from the spinnerets, throws it around the insect until it is tied 
fast. Adult male Epeiridae are seldom seen in webs of their 
own, but some of them do occasionally make webs. The male 
E. sclopetaria, for instance, sometimes makes a web 
nearly as large as that of the female and stands in it 
» waiting for insects to be caught. 

The Three House Epeiras : E. 
sclopetaria, patagiata, and strix. 
— These are the round-web 
spiders most commonly found 
about houses, barns, and 
fences. They are all 
sIVjA about the same size, a 
<'W.:^^% third of an inch in 
X^ length, and of various 
shades of brown, with a 
distinct scalloped mid- 
dle stripe on the abdo- 
men. Sclopetaria (fig. 
383) has the middle 
stripe broken at the edges just in front of the middle of each 
side, so as to form two separate figures, one covering the front 
and the other the hinder half of the abdomen. In patagiata 
(fig. 384) and-j'/77.i' the edges of the stripe are usually entire 
for their whole length. In sti'ix (fig. 385) the middle stripe 
is narrower than in the others and usually lighter in color. 
The color of sclopetaria inclines to black, with the light marks 
yellow. Patagiata is oftener reddish brown, especially in 
alcohol, and the middle stripe is often dark and uniform in 




Figs. 383, 384, 385. 383, Epeira sclopetaria. 3S4, 
Epeira patagiata. 3S5. Epeira strix. 



THE EPEIRID/E l6l 

color, less broken by spots and transverse marks than in the 
others. The front legs of sclopetaria are longer than those 
of the other species, and the front legs of strix shorter and 
stouter. The cephalothorax of strix is more plainly marked 
than the others, with three longitudinal stripes. There is 
not much difference in the markings of the under side. The 
epigynum has two hard brown prominences at each side, with 
a soft finger-like appendage between. In sclopetaria and 
sti-ix this finger is slender and tapers slightly toward the end. 
In patagiata it is wide at the end and flattened. In the 
palpi of the males there is a similar difference. Those of 
sclopetaria and strix are much alike, but that of patagiata has 
the forked hook at the base much thicker and more curved. 
Patagiata is a northern species, common in Canada and found 
occasionally as far south as Massachusetts and New York. It 
is also common in the north of Europe. Sclopetaria is also a 
European species, and is seldom found far from houses. It is 
more common north, but has been found as far south as Nor- 
folk, Va. Strix is common all over the country, both around 
houses and in bushes. 

The webs of these spiders have usually from twelve to twenty 
rays, and the inner spiral is small and carelessly finished 
(figs. 379, 380). The webs are made usually at nightfall, 
very young individuals beginning to spin soon after sunset, 
and larger ones beginning later, those that are full grown 
often waiting until dark, but some of them will occasionally 
spin their webs at any time of day. They stand in the web 
during the night, but seldom during the daytime, going then 
to their usual nests or hiding places, sometimes, especially 
with Epeira strix, a long distance from the web. As a rule, 
they have no special thread by which to enter or leave the 
web, but use any one of the rays which may be convenient, 
always injuring the web more or less ; but occasionally, if 



l62 THE COMMOxX SPIDERS 

Epeira sclopetaria has a nest in a convenient situation, he will 
make the web near it and have a thread direct from the nest to 
the center of the web, as is the usual habit in some other 
species. The eggs of sclopetaria are laid in the early summer 




Fig. 386. Egg cocoon of Epeira sclopetaria under the edge of a clapboard. 
Natural size. 

in large, round, white cocoons (fig. 386). fastened in sheltered 
places on the walls of houses and covered with a loose mass 
of silk threads. 

The Annulate Epeiras. — E. angulata (fig. 389), silvatica 
(fig. 390), Hordmaniii (fig. 387), cinerca (fig. 391), and corti- 
caria (fig. 392) all have the humps on the front of the abdo- 
men, and in young spiders this is the widest part. Angulata, 
silvatica, and cinerca grow to a large size. Cinerca is light 
colored and lives in great numbers about houses and barns 
in northern New England. Angnlata and silvatica are found 
amons: trees and are dark colored like bark. Anzulata has a 



THE EPEIRIU^ 



163 



yellow stripe on the sternum and yellow spots under the abdomen 
between the spinnerets and epigynum. Silvatica has the ster- 
num and under side of the abdomen brown, without any distinct 
markings. The male angulata has the thickened tibia of the 
second leg nearly as long as the tibia of the first leg. The 
male silvatica has the second tibia less thickened and a fourth 
shorter than the first tibia. The male aiigulata has a pair of long 
spines under the coxae of the second legs, but in silvatica these 
spines are so small as to be hardly visible. E. nordnianiii is a 
smaller species, about as large as sclopctaria and strix, with 
light gray colors and generally distinct marking both above 
and below. E. corticaria is not more than half as large as 
silvatica and might be mistaken for the young of that species, 
but the colors are lighter and the rings on the legs narrower 
and more numerous. The epigynum of corti- 
caria is nearly as large as that of silvatica, 
and the middle appendage is often wanting as 
if broken off. 

Epeira nordmanni. — This is a little smaller 
and a little longer legged than cinerea and 
angulata. The abdomen is longer than in 
those species and has two similar humps in 
front (fig. 387). The female is not more than 
half an inch long. The colors are white and 
gray or black. The cephalothorax is light 
gray, darkest at the sides, but without stripes. Fic.s.387, 388. Epeira 

1 1 • 1 11 nordmanni. — Upper 

1 he legs have a dark rmg at the ends and a and under markings 
lighter one in the middle of each joint. The f/^^^^aie enlarged 

" ■' twice. 

abdomen has a distinct middle stripe on the 
hinder half. In front there is an indistinct dark area extending 
to the top of the humps and, in the middle, inclosing a bright, 
long, white spot, with a round spot on each side sometimes 
united with it. The sternum is dark brown, without any stripe. 




164 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



The under side of the abdomen has a middle dark area in 
which are four yellow spots, two just behind the respiratory 
openings and two farther back, halfway to the spinnerets. 

Epeira angulata and silvatica. — These spiders, which are per- 
haps varieties of the same species, live usually among large 
trees and grow to over half an inch in length. 
The abdomen has two slight humps on the 
front. The colors are dark, like the bark of 
trees. The cephalothorax is dark brown, with 
traces of darker lines in the middle and at its 
sides. The legs are brown, with darker rings 
at the ends of the joints and less distinct rings 
in the middle. The abdomen has a bright 
yellow spot in front. The middle stripe is 
darker brown than the rest and has a scalloped 
edge marked by a dark and light line, which 
may be entire or broken into lines of spots. 
The under side of the abdomen is black or 
brown, with sometimes several yellow spots. 
The sternum is uniform brown in silvatica 
and has a yellow middle stripe in angulata. 
The males are colored like the females and 
are about half as large, with the legs longer, 
especially the front pairs. The tibia of the 
second legs is twice as thick as that of the 
first pair, a little bent, with the spines stouter 
and more numerous than in the female. In the male of the 
angulata variety the tibia of the second pair is nearly as long 
as that of the first, but in silvatica it is distinctly shorter. On 
the under side of the coxae of the second legs is a conical spine, 
which is longest in the angulata variety. The epigynum is 
small for so large a spider and has a long slender finger in 
the middle. These spiders are found singly or in small 




390 

Figs. 389, 390. — 3S9, 
Epeira angulata. 
390, Epeira silva- 
tica. Both enlarged 
twice. 



THE EPEIRIDyE 



165 




Fig. 391. Epeira cinerea. — 
Back of female enlarged 
twice. 



numbers, usually in the woods, sometimes in webs hung 

between trees high above the ground. 

Epeira cinerea. — This large spider is common in the northern 

part of New England, from Maine to New York, where it lives 

in great numbers about barns and houses. 

It grows to three-quarters of an inch in 

length, with the abdomen proportionally 

larger than angnlata and with two small 

humps on the front part (fig. 391). The 

color is dirty white, with grayish markings 

and long white hairs scattered all over the 

body. The cephalothorax is a little dark- 
ened at the sides, but has no distinct stripes. 

The legs have gray rings at the ends and 

middle of each joint, which are hardly visible 

in some individuals and almost black in others. The markings 

are like those of aiigulata, but paler and often indistinct. The 

sternum is brown, and the under side of the abdomen has a 
central dark stripe bordered by curved yellow 
markings. The epigynum is small, as in angii- 
lata, but the finger is flattened and turned up 
at the end. The male is colored like the 
female, with the hairs on the legs coarser 
and darker. The tibia of the second legs of 
the male is not thickened or modified as it 
is in angnlata. The webs resemble those 
of E. sciopctaria, and the spider has similar 
habits, standing in the web at night and 
usually leaving it in the daytime ; and it has 
no special thread from the web to the nest. 
Epeira corticaria. — This is a small species about quarter of an 

inch in length, with the abdomen angular in front, where it is 

as wide as long (fig. 392). The colors are generally lighter and 




Fig. 392. Epeira corti- 
caria. — Back of female 
enlarged eight times. 



1 66 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



brighter than in angiilata or silvatica. The cephalothorax has 
the cephalic part brown and the sides pale. The legs are 
marked with broken brown rings at the ends and middle of 
each joint. The abdomen is brown of various shades, with 
light markings on the front part that are often bright red or 
yellow. There is a narrow light line across the 
abdomen from the middle to each hump and 

around the outer side 
of it. In front of these 
light lines the abdomen 
is generally darker, ex- 
cept a light spot, some- 
times cross shaped, in 
the middle. The hinder 
half of the abdomen has 
sometimes an indistinct 
middle stripe. The 
under side of the abdo- 
men has the usual mid- 
dle dark area, with a 
curved yellow mark each 
side of it. The finger 
of the epigynum is usu- 
ally absent, as if broken 
off. 

Epeira trivittata and 
domiciliorum. — These 
spiders, which may be 
considered varieties of 
one species, are among the most common Epeiridoe, at least in 
the northern part of the country, the smaller variety, trivittata^ 
quarter of an inch long, living in small bushes and marsh grass, 
and the larger variety in trees and fences. The abdomen is 




Figs. 393, 394, 395. Epeira trivittata, enlarged four 
times. — 393, female. 394, male. 395, markings 
of under side of abdomen. 



THE EPEIRID^ 167 

only a little longer than wide and is proportionally smaller than 
in instdaris and thaddeus. The legs are long and slender, the 
first pair being nearly twice as long as the body. The color is 
most commonly light yellow, with brown markings. Sometimes 
the abdomen is thickly spotted with red, especially toward the 
latter part of the summer, and domicilioruiu has usually gray 
and even black markings. The cephalothorax has three dark 
stripes not very sharply defined, and the legs have brown or 
gray rings at the ends of the joints. The back of the abdomen 
has a row of light spots in the middle, sometimes united into 
a stripe, and on each side of this a row of dark 
spots nearly surrounded by lighter color. The 
sternum is bright yellow in the middle, and 
the under side of the abdomen has a dark 
center and two or three pairs of yellow spots. 
The males are usually smaller than the 
females, but resemble them in color and mark- 
ings. On the under side of each femur is a 
single row of long spines. The tibia of the 
second legs is curved more in the small than fk,. 396. Epeira 
in the large variety and has a row of strong F^^te^sis, enlarged 

o -' o tour times. 

spines on the inner side. 

The webs are made usually just before dark, and the spider 
stands in them more in the night than during the daytime. 
Sometimes they make a thread from the center of the web to 
the nest, but this is not a regular habit, as it is with iiisularis 

(fig- 397)- 

Very young spiders make proportionally larger nests, often on 
the ends of grasses, where their round webs are destroyed every 
day by the wind. Some of them mature as early as June, and 
others, especially of the domicilionnn variety, as late as August. 

Epeira pratensis. — This is the same size and color as Epeira 
trivittata, and lives, like that species, in grass and low bushes. 




i68 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



The cephalothorax and abdomen are both slightly longer than 
in trivittata, and the color is more uniform. The cephalothorax 
is dull yellow, with a middle and two lateral stripes, but these 

are often absent in 
light specimens. The 
legs are colored like 
the cephalothorax, 
sometimes a little 
darker at the ends of 
the joints. The abdo- 
men has a middle dark 
stripe, at the sides of 
which are two narrow 
bright yellow lines, 
which are sometimes 
bordered with red. 
Outside of the middle 
stripes are six pairs of 
black spots partly sur- 
rounded by yellow. On 
the under side the ster- 
num has a yellow stripe 
in the middle, and the 
abdomen two curved 
yellow marks, which 
may be broken into 
spots. In the male 
the body is longer and 
narrower than in the femiale and longer than the male trivittata, 
and the tibiae of the second legs are a little thickened and curved 
as in trivittata. 

Epeira insularis or marmorea. — The adult females are half to 
three-quarters of an inch long, the abdomen large and oval, and 




I'iG. 3^7. Web of Epeira insularis, with nest above 
covered with leaves and several threads leading 
from the nest to the center of the web. One-third 
the real size. 



THE EPEIRID.^ 



169 



bright yellow or orange color, with brown or purple markings 
(fig. 398). The cephalothorax is dull yellow, with slightly 
darker lines in the middle and at the sides. The femur and 
patella of all the legs are bright orange, darker toward the ends. 
The other joints are white, with brown ends. The light parts 
of the abdomen are bright yellow marked with brown. In the 
middle is a narrow deeply scalloped stripe, bordered by a wide 
yellow line, outside of which are oblique yellow and brown 
markings. In the middle of the stripe is a row of light spots, 
each connected at the sides with two others, smaller and round, 
forming a large figure at the anterior end. On the under side 
the sternum is brown and bright yellow in the middle. The 
abdomen is dark brown, with two semi- 
circular yellow spots. The males (fig. 
399) are about half as long as the 
females. The tibiae of the second legs 
are thickened, and the spines on the 
inner side short and stout. The coxae 
of the second legs have a 
conical spine near the base. 
This spider lives in bushes 
three or four feet high. It 
makes a tent of leaves (fig. 
397), in which it usually 
stands out of sight, holding 
a thread which leads to the 
center of the nest. Young 
spiders make larger tents in 
proportion to their size and 
make them entirely of silk 
(fig. 400). In Massachusetts and Connecticut it matures about 
the first of September. It is found all over the country, and 
is probably a variety of the European Epcira marmorea. 




Figs. 398, 399. Epeira insularis, enlarged 
twice. — 398, female. 399, male. 



I/O THE COMMON SPIDERS 

Epeira thaddeus. — A small species resembling the young of 
insiilaris, but with less distinct markings on the back. Full- 
grown females are about quarter of an inch in length, with the 
abdomen large and round (fig. 401). The colors are orange 




Fig. 400. Web of young Epeira insularis, showing the nest above and the straight thread 
leading from the nest to the center of the web. Half the real size. 

and light yellow like iiisnlaris. The two front pairs of legs 
have the femur, patella, and tibia orange, darker toward the 
ends. The third and fourth legs have the femur and patella 
orange. The other joints are white, with dark rings at the ends. 
The tibia of the fourth pair has a wide dark ring at the end. 



THE EPEIRID^ 



171 




401 



401 a 

Figs. 401, 401 a. Epeira 
thaddeus, enlarged four 
times. 



The abdomen is white or light yellow on the upper side, and 

brown underneath, the edge of the dark color coming far 

enough up to be seen from 
above, around the sides and 
front (fig. 401). Under the 
middle of the abdomen is a 
yellow spot just behind the 
epigynum(fig.40i<'7). In some 
individuals there is a trace of 
markings on the hinder part 
of the abdomen, and the 

under side is sometimes light, so that there is a dark ring 

around the middle of the abdomen. This spider makes a tent 

near the web and lives in 

it like insiilaris. 

Epeira trifolium, — This is 

one of the largest species 

of the family, measuring 

from half to three-quarters 

of an inch long, with a 

large round abdomen, 

usually of a purplish brown 

color, and legs strongly 

marked with black rings 

(fig. 403). The cephalo- 

thorax is white, with three 

wide black stripes. The 

legs are white, with a black 

ring at the end of each 

joint and in the middle of 

the fourth femur. The 

back of the abdomen varies 

in color from dark purplish brown to light gray or white, or 




Fig. 402. Epeira trifolium in its nest in a plant 
of golden-rod. Natural size. 



1/2 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



sometimes light yellow, and the same individual will change 

from light color to dark. The usual markings are four white 
spots and a middle row of smaller spots, with several 
oblique rows still smaller. All trace of the usual 
middle stripe is wanting except in very 
young individuals. The under side of 
the abdomen is dark brown, and the 
usual semicircular yellow marks are 
absent except in the young. The 
males (fig. 404) are not more than half 
as long as the females and slender and 
light colored. The markings are like 
those of the female, but less distinct. 
The tibiae of the second legs are not 
thickened or modified in shape as they 
are in the male ijisularis. Trifoliiim 
makes a large web in bushes, but sel- 
dom stands in it. It has near by a 
tent above the web (fig. 402) made of 
leaves, drawn together and lined with 
silk, connected with the center of the 
web by a strong thread, and it usually 
remains in this tent 
with one foot on the 
thread, so that it feels 
when anything is 
caught. The spiders 
mature in September, 

when the males may sometimes be seen about 

the nests of the females. In October they 

lay their eggs and all die before winter. 

Epeira displicata. — Large females are quarter of an inch long, 

but they are usually smaller. The cephalothorax and legs are 




Figs. 403, 404. Epeira trifolium, 
enlarged twice. — 403, female. 
404, male. 




Fig. 405. Epeira dis- 
plicata, enlarged four 
times. 



THE EPEIRID.^ 



173 



brownish yellow, without markings. The abdomen is oval and 

light yellow or crimson, the latter color more common in the 

young. Sometimes there are two white lines in the middle. 

At the sides of the 

hinder half of the 

abdomen are three 

pairs of round black 

spots surrounded by 

lighter rings (fig. 405). 

The under side of the 

abdomen is a little 

darker than the upper 

side, with no distinct 

markings. 

The male has the 
legs and cephalotho- 
rax darker brown 
than the female, and 
the black spots on the 
abdomen larger and 
surrounded more dis- 
tinctly with white, 
which sometimes 
forms a stripe on each 
side. The tibiae of 
the second legs are 
not thickened. The 
webs are usually 
small and among 
leaves. 

Epeira globosa or triaranea, — Length about a quarter of an 
inch, the male a third smaller. The abdomen is round and as 
wide as long, and in the female large for the size of the spider. 





^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^l 






rr 


it* 

1 




i 


fe 


^BM|I{MBBME'm|BISBH3WJJJ 




5 


^^^^IhbR^^^^^I 




g^ 







Fig. 406. Web of Epeira globosa in the corner of a door- 
way, showing the large tent at the top, from which a 
coarse thread runs to the center of the round web. 



174 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




Fig. 407. 



The front half of the abdomen is nearly covered by four white, 
yellow, or pink spots, partly united into a rectangular figure 
surrounded by an irregular black line (fig. 407). The hinder 
half has three or four pairs of black spots. 
The general color is light brownish yellow. 
The cephalothorax has a fine middle line 
from the eyes to the dorsal groove and indis- 
tinct dark marks at the sides of the head. 
The first and second legs have slightly darker 
Epeira gio- riugs at the end and middle of each joint, the 
bosa, enlarged four ^^jj-^i ^^^ fourth pairs at the ends of the joints 

times. ^ •" 

only. The male is marked like the female and 
has the tibia of the second legs slightly curved and thickened 
with large spines on the inner side. 

This spider makes a very large tent, out of which a strong 
thread runs to the center of the round web (fig. 406). From 
the tent a loose and irregular web extends downward, some- 
times covering half of the round web (fig. 406). Opposite the 
thread leading to the tent, a segment of the round web is left 
open or partly open without any sticky threads. 

Epeira labyrinthea, — This spider makes a large 
irregular web in which is a tent connected by a 
thread with the small round web below, much as 
in Epeira globosa. The female is a fifth of an inch 
long. The abdomen is oval and not unusually 
large, as it is in globosa (fig. 408). The cephalo- 
thorax is long, dark brown in the middle and 
lighter at the sides, and almost white in front 
around and behind the eyes. The legs are white, with narrow 
dark brown rings at the ends of the joints and wider yellow 
rings on patella and femur of the first and second pairs. The 
abdomen is marked with four long white spots in front and 
a dark brown middle band behind. At the sides the abdomen 




Fig. 40S. Epeira 
labyrinthea, en- 
larged four 
times. 



THE EPEIRID.'E 



175 




Fu;. 409. Web of I'.p^^ini 
labyrinthea with large ir- 
regular web around the 
nest. One-third the real 
size. 



is light brown or yellow. On the under 
side the ends of the mandibles and the 
maxillae are black. The sternum is black, 
with a white middle stripe. The abdo- 
men has a short middle white stripe sur- 
rounded by a large dark spot, and there 
are several yellow spots along the sides 
and around the spinnerets. 

The round web of this spider is not 
large, generally three or four inches in 
diameter, but the irregular part above 
and partly covering it may be much 
larger, sometimes as much as six inches 
across, where the shape of the surround- 
ing plants allows it (fig. 409). One seg- 
ment at the upper part of the round web 
is partly open, as in globosa (p. 173) and 

Zilla (p. 185), and here a strong thread passes to the nest, 

which is often covered by a large spreading tent. In the last 

of the summer several small, flat, 

brown cocoons are strung to- 
gether in the irregular web above 

the tent (fig. 410), which is then 

smaller and less regularly made. 
Epeira gibberosa. — A small and 

light-colored species living among 

grass and in bushes in open fields. 

The adult female is from a sixth 

to a quarter of an inch long, and 

the male smaller. The cephalo- 

thorax and legs are light greenish 

yellow, and the abdomen gray, or ^^''- .4^°- )"^^^ °^ Epeira labyrinthea with 

■' . . string of cocoons in the upper part over 

light yellow covered with lighter the spider's nest. One-third the real size. 




1/6 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



spots and black and yellow markings (fig. 411). The abdomen 
is marked with two parallel lines on the hinder half and three 
smaller black spots in front, the latter often absent. The 
parallel lines are sometimes broken up into rows of spots, and 
these may form part of several transverse black and yellow 
marks. The cephalothorax has a narrow black line in the 
middle from the dorsal groove nearly to the eyes. The feet 
are black toward the claws, and the spines 
of the legs are long and black. The first 
and second femora have a longitudinal 
black line on the under side. The abdo- 
men is oval, half longer than wide. The 
cephalothorax is high in the middle and 
slopes forward toward the eyes almost as 
steeply as backward (fig. 412). The web 
(fig. 413) is horizontal or inclined, with a 
round well-defined central portion, in the 
middle of which is sometimes a round 
opaque screen that nearly covers the 
spider. In the finished web there is 
usually no trace of the temporary spiral, 
but sometimes, as in the figure, a little of 
it is left, showing how it starts abruptly 
from the closer spirals that form the 
center of the web. The outer spirals are very fine and close 
together and the number of rays unusually large, sometimes as 
many as sixty. 

Epeira placida. — This is a small spider, about a fifth of an 
inch long, with the longest legs about a quarter of an inch. 
The cephalothorax is high in the middle where it rests 
against the abdomen very much as it is \\\ gibbcrosa (fig. 412). 
The abdomen is oval, and widest behind. The legs are com- 
paratively short and tapering, and the femora thick. The 




411 

Figs. 411, 412. Epeira gib- 
berosa, enlarged eight times. 
— 41 1, back of female. 412, 
side view to show humps on 
the cephalothorax. 



THE EPEIRID^ 



177 



cephalothorax is brownish yellow, with three brown stripes. 
The legs are the same color, a little darker at the ends of the 
joints. The abdomen has a middle brown stripe, narrow in 
front and widening to the middle, from which it extends to the 
spinnerets, keeping about the same width, with a row of black 
spots on the edge at each side and a pair of white spots in the 




Fig. 413. Web of Epeira gibberosa, showing the round center of the iniiLi spiral, tlie 
great number of rays, and the closeness of the spirals. Torn in several places 
by use. Half the real size. 

middle (fig. 414). The sides of the abdomen are white or yellow, 
and underneath it is brown, with two white stripes in the mid- 
dle and four white spots around the spinnerets. The male is 
marked like the female and has no peculiar modifications of 
the legs. This spider matures early, sometimes before the 
first of June in Massachusetts, and half-grown young are 



178 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




found in the autumn. The web is like that of gibberosa, with 
a large, round, and close inner spiral from which, in the unfin- 
ished web, the temporary spiral starts abruptly. The web is 
made in low bushes and may be vertical or inclined. 

Epeira scutulata. — A light yellow spider, a sixth to a fifth of 

an inch long, with the abdomen angular behind and at the 

sides and as wide as long (fig. 415). The cepha- 

lothorax is half as wide in front as it is behind, 

and the lateral eyes are as far from the middle 

eyes as they are from each other. The front 

legs are a fourth longer than the second. The 

general color is light yellow, the legs darker at 

the ends of the joints, with long black spines. 

Fig. 414. Epsira ^hc head has a few brown or red marks behind 

piacida, enlarged the cycs and back to the dorsal groove, but these 

eight times. • i i t^i 

are often entirely absent. The 
abdomen is lighter across the front between 
the two corners, and there is sometimes a 
distinct white transverse stripe. In front of 
each corner is a black spot, and there is 
generally a row of small black spots around 
the front of the abdomen, and two rows behind 
converging toward the spinnerets. In the 
hinder rows of spots the middle pair are 
generally longest, and sometimes these are 
the only pair present. The under side has no 
distinct markings. The epigynum is dark at 
the sides, and the finger is short and flat at the 
end and turned a little outward. The male 
has the legs longer, and the cephalothorax wider behind. The 
abdomen is not much larger than the cephalothorax and less 
angular than in the female. The colors are the same as in the 
female, some individuals being light and some dark. 




Fig. 415. Epeira scu- 
tulata, enlarged four 
times. 



THE EPEIRID/E 



179 




41^ 

Figs. 416, 417, 418. Markings of the 
abdomen of Epeira parvula, en- 
larged twice. 



Epeira parvula. — A common spider all over the country, with 
the abdomen wide in front and bluntly pointed behind, gray 
and brown colors and a great variety of markings. The length 
is quarter to three-eighths of an 
inch, with the abdomen two-thirds 
as long and as wide across the 
front. The abdomen is as high 
behind as it is in front, and the 
pointed end is sometimes turned a 
little upward, as it is in conica. The 
front of the head is narrow, not more than half as wide as the 
back of the thorax. The front legs are half longer than the 
body. The cephalothorax is gray, darker at the sides, and 
sometimes with a few black spots. The legs are irregularly 
marked with rings and spots, and the femora are dark toward 
the end. The abdomen is commonly gray, with a tapering 
scalloped middle stripe and a distinct dark middle spot and 
two large light spots at the front end (fig. 416). Sometimes 
there is a middle narrow dark stripe 
^ the whole length of the abdomen (fig. 
418), and sometimes all the middle is 
white or light yellow. The males have 
the head a little narrower and more 
pointed, the legs longer, and the second 
tibiae slightly thickened, but not curved. 
The webs are in low bushes. 

Epeira stellata. — A brown spider, a 
quarter to a third of an inch long and 
nearly as broad, with pointed humps 
around the abdomen. The cephalotho- 
rax is wide in front, and the lateral eyes are on the outer sharp 
corners. The legs are short and usually drawn up and partly 
concealed under the abdomen. The abdomen has a sharp point 




Fig. 419. Epeira stellata, 
enlarged four times. 



i8o 



THE COMMON SPIDPZRS 



in front that extends over the cephalothorax as far as the base 
of the first legs, and a large point behind, with a smaller one 
under it. At the sides are five pairs of points, and over the 
first of these another pair a little higher on the back. The 




Fig. 420. Unfinished web of Epeiia stellata with the spider hanging near tlie center. 
Half tlie real size. 



cephalothorax is brown, lighter in the middle and darker at 
the sides, and covered with short gray hairs. The abdomen is 
marked with lighter and darker spots of brown, the front part 
generally dark with a very light middle spot, and the hinder 
half showing traces of the usual middle stripe of Epeira. The 



THE EPEIRID.^ 



I8l 



legs have dark rings at the ends and middle of the joints. It 
lives among low bushes a foot or two from the ground all over 
the country. This spider, as well as several other species, 
often leaves a web unfinished with the inner spiral still cover- 
ing a large part of it, as in fig. 420. 

Epeira verrucosa. — • Common in the South and as far north as 
Long Island, N.Y. The body is about a quarter of an inch 
long. The abdomen is narrow behind but not pointed, and in 
front nearly as wide as long. The middle is nearly covered by 
a triangular light spot, — white, yellow, or pink in 
different spiders, — surrounded by a darker color 
of various shades of brown or gray. The cepha- 
lothorax is yellow or light gray, with sometimes 
some darker spots in the middle, 
are colored like the thorax, 
with darker rings at the 
ends of the joints and in 
the middle of the first 
and second femora. 
The spines are slender 
and colored like the 
hairs. The abdomen 
has a prominent tuber- 
cle behind, at the end 
of the light spot, and 
under it in the middle 
line two others. At 
the sides near the pos- 
terior end are two pairs 
of tubercles, and some- 
times two other pairs farther forward, and two at the corners of 
the light spot. The colors of the under side are as variable 
as those above, — sometimes light without distinct markings. 




421 



Figs. 421, 422, 423. Epeira verrucosa. — 421, female 
enlarged twice. 422, under side of female. 423, 
male enlarged twice. 



182 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



and sometimes almost black at the sides, on the sternum, and 
around the spinnerets. The epigynum (fig. 422) has a slender 
pointed finger reaching halfway to the spinnerets. 

The male (fig. 423) has the head narrower than the female, 
and the abdomen as small as the cephalothorax. The legs are 
longer and more slender, with the metatarsus of the second 
pair curved inward, and a long forked spine on 
the inside of the tibia of the same legs. 

Larinia directa. — This resembles a much 
elongated Epcira pratensis (p. 167). It 
is about as long 2iS pratensis, a quarter 
to a third of an inch, but very slender, 
— not much more than a quarter as 
wide as long (fig. 425). The general 
color is yellowish but pale and 
translucent, marked with very dis- 
tinct black spots. The spots are 
usually in six pairs on the abdomen, 
sometimes so small as to be hardly 
visible, sometimes so large as to be 
the most distinct part of the spider. 
In some individuals there is a row 
of black spots on the upper side of 
each leg, so that when these are 
drawn up over the back hardly any- 
thing is visible except the spots. In 
some individuals the first and third 
pairs of spots on the abdomen arc very large and the others 
very small (fig. 426). The sternum is nearly twice as long as 
wide, with the sides of the front half parallel. It is darker at 
the sides. On the under side of the abdomen are two parallel 
dark stripes. In the male (fig. 424) the front legs are nearly 
three times the length of the body, but neither the first nor 




Figs. 424, 425, 426, 
427. Larinia di- 
recta. — 424, male with one 
front leg to show its great 
length. 425, female with 
the legs of one side drawn 
up in a natural position, 
showing the spots. 426, female with 
four larg3 spots on the back. 427, 
under side. All enlarged four times. 



427 



THE EPEIRID/E 



183 




the second pair is curved or thickened. It is found in South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. 

Cyclosa conica or caudata. — This spider may be Icnown by the 
blunt conical hump at the hinder end of the abdomen, extend- 
ing upward and backward over the spinnerets (figs. 428, 429). 
Full-grown females are about quarter of an inch long. The 
color is a mixture of gray and white, different individuals vary- 
ing from almost white to almost black. The cephalothorax 
is longer than wide, the front part narrow, and the top of the 
front of the head extended forward beyond 
the base of the mandibles. The hump on 
the abdomen varies considerably in size, 
and is generally about half as long as the 
rest of the abdomen and slopes gradually 
into it. In light individuals the markings 
of the abdomen are obscure, but usually figs. 428, 429. Cyciosa 
there is a distinct dark middle stripe, "^"'*^=^' enlarged four 

times. 

widest near the base of the hump. The 
under side is black, with a pair of very distinct light spots 
across the middle. The cephalothorax is dark gray or black 
without stripes, sometimes a little lighter around the eyes. 
The legs are white, with dark rings at the end of each joint 
and in the middle of each except the femora. On the first 
and second femora the dark rings are very wide, covering 
sometimes more than half the joint. The males have the 
cephalothorax darker and narrower in front, and the abdomen 
smaller, with only a slight hump. The spider seems to live all 
the time in the web. The inner spiral is large and widens 
gradually from the center outward. There is usually a line of 
silk across the web, in which are fastened parts of dead insects 
and other rubbish and, in the middle of the summer, the cocoons 
of eggs. The spider, standing in the middle of this band where 
it crosses the center of the web, looks like part of the rubbish. 



i84 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



When an old web is torn down this band of rubbish is left in 
place, and the new web made across it. A peculiarity of the 
web of this spider is that the inner spiral has one, and some- 
times two, loops in it, making it wider than it is high (fig. 430). 




Fig. 430. Half-finished web of young Cyclosa conica, showing sticks and rubbish across 
the lower half. The inner spiral has a loop in the left side. 



THE THREE SPECIES OF THE GENUS ZILLA 

We have three species of Zilla, the females of which are so 
much alike that it is almost impossible to tell them apart. 
The males also resemble each other closely except in their 
palpi, which are distinctly different in the different species. 
They are of moderate size, the largest about three-eighths of 
an inch long, and in general appearance resemble the genus 
Steatoda of the Therididae (p. 119). The abdomen is large 
and oval and a little flattened. The legs are slender and of 
moderate length, like those of Epeira. The head is rounded in 
front, and the lateral eyes are not separated farther from the 



THE EPEIRID.C 



185 




Fig. 431. Female 
Zilla atrica, en- 
larged four times. 

underneath. 



middle pairs than they are from each other. The mandibles 

are large and thickened in the middle toward the front. The 
epigynum and the spinnerets are both small. The color 
of all the species is gray, with sometimes a little yellow 
or pink in the lighter parts. The cephalothorax has 
usually, but not always, a dark border at the 
sides and a middle dark line that widens and 
becomes lighter toward the eyes. The abdomen 
has a wide middle stripe like Epeira, scalloped at 
the sides and crossed at the hinder end by two 
or three pairs of transverse spots. In front it is 
almost white or tinted with pink or yellow, and 
narrows almost to a point, with a much darker 
spot each side. The sides of the abdomen are 
marked with oblique dark marks that extend 
The sternum has a light middle stripe. Under 

the abdomen is a dark middle stripe, with light each side of it. 

The legs are pale, with nar- 
row gray rings at the end 

and middle of each joint. 

These three species seem to 

be the same as three found 

in Europe, — • Z. atrica, Z. 

x-notata, and Z. viontaiia. 

Africa is found at Ipswich 

and Salem on the coast of 

Massachusetts, x-notata at 

Woods Hole on the south 

coast of Massachusetts, and 

montana in the White Moun- 

tains and Adirondacks. 

Wherever found they are in large numbers, atrica and x-notata 

living on the outside of houses, and montana in trees and rocks. 




Fig. 432. Middle of web of Zilla atrica with 
the open segment and thread to the nest at 
the left. 



i86 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



The webs of Zilla (fig. 432) have a segment left without cross 
threads, sometimes for its whole length, and sometimes only 
the part of it nearest the center. Opposite this open segment 
a thread leads from the center of the web to the nest (fig. 433), 

which is a tube of silk open at both 
ends. 

The differences between the palpi 
of the males are very plain. In atrica 
the palpi (fig. 434) are as long as the 
whole body, with the femur and tibia 
both slightly curved and the tarsus 
and palpal organ small and like that 
of x-7iotaia. In x-jwtata (fig. 435) the 
palpus is as long as the cephalothorax, 
and the tarsus and palpal organ small 
and round. The front legs are a 
fourth longer than in atrica. In 
moitana (fig. 435c?) the palpus is still 
shorter, the tibia thicker, and the tar- 
sus and palpal organ larger. There 
is little difference in the shape of the 
epigynum of the different species, but 
that of viontana is twice as large as 
that of x-iiotata or atrica. 

Singa pratensis. — The Singas are 
small Epeiridae a sixth or fifth of an 
inch long, with smooth bodies and 
bright colors. They live among grass and other small plants in 
low open ground. When full grown the females of S. pratensis 
are a fifth of an inch long, with the abdomen oval and marked 
with a double white stripe in the middle and a single one on 
each side. The cephalothorax is yellow, with a little black 
between the middle eyes not extending to the lateral pairs. 




Fig. 433. Tubular nest of 
Zilla atrica. 



THE EPEIRID/E 



187 



The legs are yellow, without rings or other markings. The 
abdomen is yellow brown, darker toward the hinder end, with 
white or light yellow stripes. The under side is the same 
yellow-brown color, darker in the middle, with two narrow, 
curved, light lines from 
the spiracles to the spin- 
nerets. The males are 
marked in the same way 
and have a smaller abdo- 
men and longer spines 
on the legs. 

Singa variabilis. — -This 
is a little smaller than 
pratoisis, usually about a 
sixth of an inch long. 
The legs and cephalo- 
thorax are bright orange F'gs. 434, 435, 435(7. Male palpi of 21113.-434, ziiia 

, ^T,, , , , atrica. 4::;, Zilla x-notata. 4 5;(?, Zilla montana. 

color. The front of the 

head between the eyes is black. The abdomen is usually 
entirely black, but occasionally has bright yellow markings 
(fig. 436) arranged somewhat as in pratensis. Sometimes there 
is a wide middle stripe, with narrower 
ones at the sides and two underneath. 
Sometimes there are only the two lateral 
stripes, and there are all variations 
between these markings. The males 
are colored in the same way and have 
They are smaller than the males of 





Fig. 436. Markings of the 
back of Singa variabilis. 



the same varieties. 

pratensis, but have the palpal organs as large or larger. 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



THE GENUS ACROSOMA 

These are small spiders, with the abdomen extended back 
half its length beyond the spinnerets, brightly colored, flat- 
tened above, and furnished with several pairs of pointed 
processes. The cephalothorax is longer than in Epeira and 




Fig. 437. Web of Acrosoma spinea. 

Argiope and widest in the middle. The legs are slender 
and have only fine and soft hairs. The webs (fig. 437) are 
inclined and have a hole in the middle surrounded by several 
turns of smooth thread ; when hanging in it the spiders look 
like burrs or seeds. At a slight alarm they will sometimes 
drop to the ground and hide under the nearest shelter. 



THE EPEIRID/E 



189 




Fig. 438. Acro- 
soma mitrata, 
enlarged four 
times. 



Acrosoma mitrata. — This is a smaller species than nigosa or 
spinea. The abdomen does not extend as far backward as in 
the other species, but comes farther forward so as to cover 
half the cephalothorax (fig. 438). The abdomen 
is truncated behind, with two pairs of pointed 
processes at the corners, one pair below the other. 
In front, the abdomen is a little narrowed over 
the thorax. The legs and cephalothorax are 
brown, as in the other species. The abdomen 
is light yellow, darker behind, with two or three 
pairs of black spots along the middle and five 
or six dark elongated spots along the sides. 
The under side is black mixed with yellow spots, as in the 
other species. Common as far north as Connecticut. 

Acrosoma rugosa. — This has five pairs of spines on the abdo- 
men, three pairs in the same places as those of spinea and the 
other two pairs behind and under the last of the three. All 
the humps and spines are about the same size. 
The cephalothorax and legs resemble those of 
spinea, but the legs are shorter. The colors are 
white, yellow, and brown in spots and marks 
like those of spinea, some individuals being 
almost white, and others as nearly black. The 
males have a long slender abdomen without 
humps or spines. This is a common spider as 
far north as Connecticut, where it is occasion- 
ally found. 

Fig. 439. Acrosoma Acrosoma spinea. — This spider is distinguished 
rugosa, enlarged fj-Qj-j-^ ^\ j;|-,g commou specics by the shape of 

four times. 

its abdomen, which is narrow in front and has 
two long spreading points behind (fig. 440). There is a pair of 
smaller spines on the front of the abdomen and another near 
the middle of each side. The middle of the abdomen is white 




I go 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



or bright yellow, 
red at the base. 




Figs. 440, 441. 442 



The spines are black at the points and bright 
There are several black spots on the back, and 
gray marks at the sides. The under side of 
the abdomen is darker than it is above and 
marked with black and yellow spots. The 
cephalothorax and legs are light 
brown, the thorax with lighter edges. 
The young have the abdomen 
longer, with the posterior spines 
short and blunt. 
The third and 
fourth legs are 
whitish, with dark 
longitudinal 
stripes. The males 
are smaller than 
the females and re- 
semble the young. 
The abdomen is a little widened behind and has 
in place of the spines three pairs of low humps. 
The front legs are dark, and the hinder legs light, 
as in the young. The web (fig. 437) has a hole 
in the middle, across which the spider hangs. 

Meta menardi. — This spider lives in caves and 
similar cool and shady places in various parts of 
this country and also in Europe. In general 
appearance, especially when young, it reminds 
one of Linyphia. The abdomen is 
longer than wide, high in front, and 
tapering a little behind (fig. 445). 
The eyes are near together, the 

lateral eyes almost as near the middle pairs as they are to each 
other. The mandibles are Ions:, thickened in front near the 



440 

Acrosoma spinea. 
— 440, female enlarged four times. 
441, male enlarged four times. 442, 
young less than half grown. 




444 




445 

Figs. 443, 444, 445. Meta menardi, 
enlarged four times. — 443. 444, 
half-grown young. 445, back of 
adult female. 



THE EPEIRID^ 



191 



base, and slightly turned outward at the ends and strongly 
toothed on the inner side about the claw. The maxillae are 
also long and a little widened at the ends. The dorsal groove 
is very deep. The legs are long, the front pair twice the length 
of the body. The full-grown 
female is half an inch in 
length, the male a third 
shorter, but with legs nearly 
as long. The general color 
is gray, the lighter parts 
translucent and yellowish. 
The cephalothorax has three 
gray stripes, more distinct in 
the young, a middle stripe 
from the eyes to the dorsal 
groove, and one on each side 
of the thorax. In the young 
(fig. 444) the markings of the 
abdomen are two large dark 
spots near the front end and 
several other pairs, becoming 
smaller toward the hinder 
end. In adults these mark- 
ings unite into a middle 
stripe more like Epeira, with 
a light middle spot in front 
and several middle spots and 
pairs of spots diminishing 
backward. The legs have gray rings at the ends and middle 
of the joints. The webs are horizontal or inclined, according 
to the shape of the rocks on which they are built. They 
resemble the webs of Tetragnatha, having a small central spiral 
with a round hole in the middle, across which the spider holds 




Figs. 446, 447. Argyroepeira hortoriim, enlarged 
four times. — 446, under side of female. 447, 
back of female. 



192 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



herself. This spider matures late in the autumn or early in 
the summer, and makes large, loose, and transparent cocoons, 
hung near the webs. 

Argyroepeira hortorum. — This is a green and silver-white 
spider, with slender legs and a long abdomen resembling 

Tetragnatha. The 
body of the female is 
about a quarter of an 
inch long, the abdo- 
men twice as long as 
wide, and blunt at both 
ends (fig. 447). The 
first pair of legs are 
twice as long as the 
body, the second a 
fourth shorter (fig. 
446). The legs are 
bright green, darker 
toward the ends. The 
cephalothorax is green, 
with a darker stripe in 
the middle and one on 
each side. The upper 
part of the abdomen 
is silver white, with a 
dark line through the 
middle, giving off four 
pairs of branches at the 
sides. At the sides of 
the abdomen are yel- 
low stripes extending 
downward, and toward the hinder end two bright copper-red 
spots. The colors of the under side are as bright as those 




Fig. 44S. Argiope riparia in the middle of the web. 
Natural size. 



THE EPEIRID/E 



193 



above and are more plainly seen as the sp 
web. The basal joints of the legs are light 
sternum and mouth parts dark. The abdo 
darker from front to back, where it is 
around the spinnerets. In the middle 
is a large double spot of bright copp 
red, and the red spots at the end of 
body show as plainly from below as 
from above, and around the middl 
spot are several small spots of bright 
yellow. The hairs and spines of th 
legs are so fine that they do not much 
affect the general color. On the front 
side of the femur of the 
fourth leg there is a fringe 
of long hairs extending half 
its length. The males are 
half as large as the females, 
with longer and more slen- 
der legs and palpi, and the 
same colors. The webs are 
nearly horizontal, with a 
small hole in the center, 
and under the round web 
is often a large irregular 
web. The round web may 
be a foot in diameter, or it may be so 
small as hardly to cover the spider. The 
webs have a large number of rays, and 
the spirals are very close together, as in the 
gibbcrosa (fig. 413). The smooth central 
is circular and very regularly woven, show 
trace of the beginning of the temporary 



ider hangs in its 
in color, and the 
men is green, 
almost black 




•"iGS. 449, 450. Argi- 
ope riparia. — 449, 
female. 450, male 
enlarged twice. 



webs of Epeira 
part of the web 
ing usually no 
spirals, and 



194 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



between it and the sticky circles there is a wide space in which 
is nothing but the bare rays. 

Argiope riparia. — This and the next species are among the 
largest and most conspicuous of the round-web spiders. It 
lives among grass and low bushes in open fields and meadows, 
especially along the borders of ponds and ditches. It matures 




Fic. 451. Middle of web of Argiops riparia, natural size. The large inner spiral ends at h 
and the outer spiral at a. At f, r, are thickened spots on the rays where the inner 
spiral was attached while the web was making. 

in the northern states about the first of August. Large females 
are nearly an inch long, with the front legs longer than the body 
(fig. 449). The cephalothorax is nearly as wide as long and 
covered with silvery white hairs, except around the eyes. The 
front legs are entirely black, and the others are black, except 
the femora, which are light red or yellow. The abdomen is 



THE EPEIRID/E 



195 



oval, a little pointed behind and square in front, with two small 
humps at the corners. There is a black stripe in the middle 
of the abdomen, narrowed between the humps and widened in 
the middle, where it includes two pairs of yellow spots. Along 




Fig. 452. Rudimentary web of male Argiope riparia of the natural size. Part of the web 
of the female at the left shows the difference between the webs of the two sexes. 



the sides are two bright yellow bands or rows of irregular spots. 
The color underneath is black, with a yellow stripe on the 
sternum and two wide yellow stripes on the abdomen, with 
small yellow spots between and at the sides. The young 
differ considerably from the adults. Until nearly full grown 



196 



Till-: COMMON SPIDERS 



the legs are distinctly marked with dark rings on the ends 
and middle of each joint. When very young the abdomen is 
slender, the color is pale, and the markings gray, without the 
strong black and yellow of the adult. The male (fig. 450) is 




Fig. 453. Web of .-Vrgiope riparia in an oval opening among plants from which the 
leaves have been drawn away by the spider. At the left of the web is a screen of 
irregular threads. 

only a fourth as long as the female, similarly colored, but with 
the markings less distinct and the palpi very large. In the mid- 
dle of the summer they live near the webs of the females, where 

they make small and imperfect webs of their own (fig. 452). 
The females make webs, sometimes two feet in diameter, with 



THE EPEIRID/E 



197 



a zigzag band (fig. 448) of white silk up and down across the 
middle, and a round thick spot where the spider stands. The 
inner spiral of these webs is very large, covering a quarter of 
their diameter (fig. 452). The outer spiral comes very near 
it, but the spider sometimes passes 
through the narrow space between 
them from one side of the web to 
the other. The web is usually a 
little inclined, and on one or both 
sides sometimes has a screen of 
irregular threads two or three inches 
distant from it (fig. 453), but these 
are often absent. These spiders 
have no nest and stand all the time 
in the center of the web (fig. 448). 
Sometimes the spider draws away 
the grass and leaves so as to make 
an oval opening large enough for 
the web (fig. 453). In September 
the eggs are laid in large pear- 
shaped cocoons with a brown paper- 
like surface, hung by threads among 
the grass and bushes (fig. 454). The 
young hatch during the winter and 
remain in the cocoon until May. The 
adult spiders disappear in October 
and probably all die before winter. 
Argiope transversa. — This species 
is a little smaller than riparia. It lives in the same places and 
matures a little later, about September i. The abdomen is more 
pointed than that of riparia (fig. 455). The ground color is 
white or light yellow, and is crossed by a great number of black 
transverse lines, which are sometimes obscured, especially in 




Fig. 454. Egg cocoon of Argiope 
riparia in marsh grass. Natural 
size. 



198 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



young spiders, by a thick covering of silvery-white hairs. The 
cephalothorax is covered with white hairs through which the 
dark markings on the sides show indistinctly. The legs are 
light yellow, with black bands at the ends and middle of each 
joint. The femora of the first legs are sometimes entirely 
black. The young have the back entirely 
white. The markings of the under side 
are similar to those of riparia. The male 
(fig. 456) is colored like the female, but is 
only a fourth as large. The legs are yel- 
low, marked with black spots, but have no 
rings. It has the same habits as riparia. 
It remains in its web later in the season, 
and makes a cocoon flattened on the top 
(fig. 458) instead of narrowed to a neck, 
like those of riparia. 

This species often makes its web in 
marsh grass, which it draws away and 
fastens with silk (fig. 457). As the sur- 
rounding grass becomes long and weak, 
it sometimes falls away, leaving the web 
in a basket of grass fastened firmly 
enough together to remain standing. 

Figs. 455, 456. Argiope trans- THE GENUS TETRAGNATHA 

versa.' — 455, female. 456, 

t"wice'' ^°'^ e"i=^--g«d ^^g Tetragnathas are slender, usually 
straw-colored spiders, living in their webs 
among the long grass in meadows and near water. The legs 
are slender, the cephalothorax narrow, and the abdomen long and 
cylindrical. The mandibles are large in both sexes, and in the 
males are very long and furnished with long teeth at the end 
and along the inner margin. When pairing, the male and 




THE EPEIRID/E 199 

female hold each other by the ends of the mandibles. The eyes 
are in two rows nearly equal and parallel, and the distance 
between the lateral pairs varies in different species. The palpi 
are long and slender in both sexes, and in the males their 




Fig. 457. Web of Argiope transversa in an opening among marsh grass, covered 
above by wilted ends of grass leaves. 

proportions differ according to the species. The legs are also 
long and slender, and vary in length from grallator, where the 
female has the first legs ten times as long as the cephalothorax, 
to laboriosa, in which they are seven times as long. The webs 
are generally inclined and may be nearly horizontal or nearly 



200 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



vertical, according to the place where they are made (fig. 459). 
The inner spiral is small and has a hole in the middle (fig. 460). 
The spider stands in the web with the legs extended forward 

and backward close to each 
other, except at the ends, 
where they are turned out- 
ward (fig. 459). On account 
of their similar size and color, 
the species look at first sight 
much alike, but there are dif- 
ferences in the arrangement 
of the lateral eyes and the 
length of the legs, palpi, and 
mandibles. 

Tetragnatha grallator . — This 
spider grows to be half an 
inch long, with the first legs 
an inch and a half. The 
mandibles of the female are 
as long as the cephalothorax, 
and those of the male longer 
(figs. 461, 465). In both sexes 
they are inclined forward, so 
as to be nearly horizontal and 
spread apart at the ends. The 
lateral eyes are near together, 
so that they almost touch, and 
the upper row when seen from above is nearly straight. The 
palpi of both sexes are over one and a half times as long as 
the cephalothorax, and in the males sometimes twice as long 
(fig. 465). The patella and tibia together are nearly as long 
as the femur. The color is sometimes light yellow, but 
often gray, with a broken middle stripe of darker gray on the 




Fig. 458. 



Egg cncdon ot Argiope transversa 
in marsh grass. 



THE EPEIRID.-E 



201 



abdomen, and three stripes on the cephalothorax. The abdo- 
men is generally enlarged a little in the front third (fig. 461). 
The males are smaller and more slender than the females, with 
longer legs and mandibles. 

Tetragnatha extensa. — Female a quarter to three-eighths of 
an inch long, with the first leg three-quarters of an inch. The 
abdomen is shorter than in grallator, about twice as long as 
the cephalothorax, and not as much widened in front (fig. 462). 




Fig. 459. Web of Tetragnatha in tansy plants, sho\ 



.1 ii-. usual position. 



The mandibles are two-thirds as long as the cephalothorax and 
not much inclined forward. The lateral eyes are near together. 
The colors are often dark, dull yellow brown or gray, with 



202 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



three lines on the cephalothorax and a middle dark stripe 
on the abdomen, with a light silvery stripe on each side. 

The male is smaller and more slender, with the legs longer. 
The male palpi are one-half longer than the cephalothorax, the 
femur forming nearly half its length (fig. 466). 

Tetragnatha laboriosa. — A little smaller than cxtoisa, with 
shorter legs and mandibles, the latter short enough in the 




Fig. 400. 1 lie same web shown in hig. 459, treated so as to show 
and the hole in the middle of the web. 



>pinil 



female to be almost vertical (fig. 463). The abdomen is pro- 
portionally longer than in cxtcjisa, usually in the females three 



THE EPEIRID^ 



203 



\//] 



kiN> 



m 



ill 



Figs. 461, 462, 463, 464. 



462 463 464 

Backs of females of four species of Tetragnatha. 



461, grallator. 462, extensa. 463, laboriosa. 464, straminea. 




Figs. 465, 466. Cephalothoiax, mandible, and palpus of males. — 465, Tetragnatha 
grallator. 466, Tetragnatha extensa. 



204 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



times as long as the cephalothorax. The first legs are about 
seven times as long as the cephalothorax. The upper row of 
eyes is a little curved, so that the lateral pairs of eyes are as far 
apart as the middle ones (fig. 467). The general color is light 
yellow. The abdomen is silvery white, with some indistinct 

gray markings along the 
middle, and dark stripes on 
the under side. In the males 
the mandibles (fig. 467) are 
short compared with the 
other species, and are about 
two-thirds as long as the 
cephalothorax, and the tibia 
is very little longer than the 
patella. 

Tetragnatha straminea. — A 
quarter to three-eighths of 
an inch long, about the same 
size as laboriosa, and the 
same color. The legs, palpi, 
and mandibles are all a little 
longer than in laboriosa, 
and the lateral eyes are 
farther apart than the middle pairs (fig. 464). In the males 
the abdomen is shorter and smaller, and the legs longer. The 
male palpi (fig. 468) are one and a half times the length of 
the cephalothorax. In females the abdomen is usually three 
times as long as the cephalothorax and more slender than in 
laboriosa. 




Figs. 467, 46S. Cephalothorax, mandibles, and 
palpus of male. — 467, Tetragnatha laboriosa. 
46S, Tetragnatha straminea. 



THE CINIFLONID.E, OR CRIBELLATA 



-> V 



:/j^ 



This group comprises several families that differ 
greatly in form and habits, but agree in having 
peculiar spinning organs, different from those of all 
the other spiders. They have the usual six spinnerets 
and in addition the cribellum (fig. 469), a fiat, wide 
spinning organ, close in front of the other spinnerets 

and covered with 
finer spinning 
tubes. Besides this 
additional spinning 
organ they have on 
the hind legs the 
calamistrum (fig. 470), a row of hairs that is used to 
draw out a loose band of silk from the spinnerets. 
Most of our species belong to the genera Dictyna and 
Amaurobius and resemble Tegenaria (pp. 96-99) in 
their feet with three claws, in the arrangement of the 
eyes, and in their general form and color. The others 
belong to the small and peculiar genera Filistata, 
Hyptiotes, and Uloborus. 



469 

Figs. 469, 470. — 469, cribellum. 470, calamis- 
trum of Amaurobius sylvestris. 



THE GENUS DICTYNA 



470 



The Dictynas are all small spiders, not more 

than a sixth of an inch in length, but are 

brightly colored and live in webs in open places, 

where they cannot fail to be seen by any one 

205 



2o6 THE COMMON SPIDERS 

who looks for spiders. They are not easily frightened, and so 
their habits can be more easily watched than those of many 
larger kinds. The heads are high, arching up from the eyes to 
the highest part opposite the first legs (fig. 476). The eyes are 




Fig. 471. Webs of Dictyna on the side of a house. The nests were in the groove 
between the boards, and the webs radiated irregularly from them, crossing each 
other in all directions so as to appear like parts of one web. 

higher and the front of the head is more nearly vertical than in 
Amaurobius (fig. 489). The head is about half as wide as the 
thorax and distinctly marked off from it and usually lighter 
colored. The abdomen is sometimes marked with light yellow 
on a gray ground, as in Amaurobius, or with a light middle 



THE CINIFLONIU^, OR CRIBELLATA 



207 



stripe of various shapes, bordered with brown or gray (fig. 487). 
The whole body is covered with fine hairs, and there are often 
long white hairs in rows on the cephalothorax. The cribellum 
is large for the size of the spiders and can generally be plainly 
seen just in front of the other spinnerets. The calamistrum 
is not so easy to see, but it covers about half the length of 
the fourth metatarsus. The peculiarities of the species of these 
spiders are more strongly marked in the males. The mandibles 




Fig. 472. W^eb of Dictyna in the corner of a window pane. 

of both sexes are long and a little curved forward at the ends 
(fig. 476), but in the males they are sometimes so long that the 
distance from the ends of the mandibles to the top of the head is 
as great as the length of the cephalothorax, and the lower ends 
are turned forward at a sharp angle with the upper part. The 
mandibles of the males are curved apart in the middle, and they 
have at the base a short tooth projecting forward (fig. 477). 
The palpi of the males have a process on the tibia, usually 
near the base, on the end of which are two spines (fig. 478). 



2o8 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



There is not much difference in size between the sexes, but they 

are often very differently colored, and the males do not have 

the cribellum and calamistrum, or have only rudiments of them. 

Some species live on walls and fences, making large webs 

that become conspicuous from 
the dust which they collect. 
Others prefer the tops of plants 
like stiff grass and the tops of 
golden-rod and spiraea. Others, 
like volupis (fig. 474), prefer 
leaves and the ends of growing 
branches. The webs are usually 
irregular, but sometimes are 
nearly round and formed by 
threads radiating from the 
spider's hole, crossed irregu- 
larly by other threads (fig. 471). 
Dictyna volupis. — This species 
and frondea are b'-ighter 
colored and more slender 
than muraria and voliicripes 
(fig. 484) and live among the 
leaves of bushes. The female 
volupis has the legs pale, 
almost white, and the cepha- 
lothorax light brown, darker at 
the sides and light on the head 
(fig. 474). The abdomen is 
yellow in the middle and brown, sometimes red, at the sides. 
The middle yellow portion forms a regular figure differing 
much in different individuals. The male is quite differently 
colored. The cephalothorax, which is larger, is bright orange 
brown, without much difference between the head and the 




Fig. 473 



Web of Dictyna on the 
end of a twig. 



THE CINIFLONID^, OR CRIBELLATA 



209 



sides (fig. 475). The legs are light orange, darker than those 
of the female. The abdomen is dark reddish brown, some- 
times over the whole back, but usually with a yellow irregular 
middle spot smaller than that of the female. The ends of the 
male palpi are dark colored and as large as the spider's head 
(fig. 475). The hairs are very fine and light colored and do 
not modify the color as much as they do in the brown species. 
The length of volupis is not over an 
eighth of an inch. The abdomen is oval 
and not as 
wide or high 
as in vobicri- 
pcs and vuira- 
ria. The head 
of the male is 
high, and the 
mandibles al- 
most as long 
as the cepha- 

lothorax (fig. 476). The lower 
half is turned sharply forward 
and flattened out at the end. 
The mandibles are light orange 
brown, so that their shape is 
more readily seen than in the 
dark species. The tooth on 
the front of the base of the 
mandibles is very large in this species (fig. 477). 

Dictyna frondea. — This resembles volupis and is likely to be 
mistaken for it. It is a little smaller, not over a tenth of an 
inch long, and there is less difference between the sexes. The 
legs are pale, and the cephalothorax light brown, lighter on the 
head. The abdomen is gray at the sides, not as red as in 





476 

Figs. 474, 475, 476, 477, 478. Dictyna volupis. 
— 474, female. 475, male. Both enlarged 
eight times. 476, side of male. 477, front 
of head of male enlarged sixteen times, show- 
ing curved mandibles. 478, palpus of male. 



2IO 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



volupis, and the middle light stripe is narrower and not as 
bright yellow (fig. 479). The sternum and under side of the 
abdomen are gray, as dark as the upper 
part and sides, while in volupis they are 
generally lighter. The males have the 
cephalothorax larger, and that and the legs 
a little brighter colored than in the female, 
and the abdomen darker. The mandibles 
are not as long as in the male volupis, and 
the ends of the male palpi are much 
smaller and the tibia longer and straighter 
than in volupis (fig. 481). 

Dictyna cruciata. — About a tenth of an 
inch long, with the abdomen large and 
oval, as in nuiraria. The cephalothorax 
is light brown above and below, and the 
legs the same color, but still lighter. The 
abdomen is gray beneath and at the sides, 
and silvery white on the back, sometimes 
over the whole upper surface, but oftener 
in a stripe widened in 
the middle so as to 
form a white cross on 

thorax and palpus of male. ^ crrouud (fig. 482). 

481, palpus of male. & J' tr. V & t / 

The males are darker 
colored, with the light spot on the abdomen 
smaller. The male palpi are short and 
slender, the ends large and rounded and 
carried close to the head (fig. 483). 

Dictyna volucripes and muraria. — These two 
gray spiders are the common Dictynas on 
walls and fences and on the ends of grass and weeds, where 
they make webs shaped according to the places where they 




Figs. 479, 480, 481. Dictyna 
frondea. — 479, markings 
of the abdomen enlarged 
eight times. 480, cephalo- 

ip; 
481, palpui 




Figs. 482, 4S3. Dictj'na 
cruciata. — 4S2, female 
enlarged eight times. 
483, cephalothorax and 
palpi. 



THE CINIFLONID/E, OR CRIBELLATA 



21 I 




live, having in some part of the web a hole in which the spider 
usually hides (fig. 473). Some allied species make nearly cir- 
cular webs on walls, with the hole 
near the center, and gather so much 
dust as to appear like a spot of dirt 
(fig. 471). Voh(cripes is about a 
sixth of an inch in length, and 
4^*^ viuraria an eighth of an inch. 

]\^lHcripcs is browner in color and more common 
on plants, and miiraiia is grayer and more com- 
mon on fences. Both species are marked much 
alike. The cephalothorax is dark brown, partly 
covered with light gray hairs, some of which 
form roughly three stripes on the head. The 
abdomen is large and round, in some 
females nearly as wide as long. The front 
half has a middle dark spot of various 
shapes, and the hmder half two rows of 




Figs. 4S4 48^ 4S6 Die 
tyna volucnpes — 4S4, 
female enlarged eight 
times 4S!; tibia of male 
palpus of Dictjiia volu 
cripeb 4S6 tibn of 
male pilpus of Dict>na 
mm 11 11 






Fig. 487. Varieties of marking on the abdomen of 
Dictyna muraria. 



spots connected in 

pairs with a middle 

line, forming a figure much like the markings of several 

species of Epeira (figs. 484, 487). The legs are dark gray or 

brown, covered with fine hairs, the first pair not much longer 



212 



THE COMIMON SPIDERS 



than the body. In the females the mandibles are a little thick- 
ened in the middle. In the male they are elongated and turned 
forward at the ends and curved apart in the middle, and have a 
small tooth on the front near the base. The palpi of the males 




Fig. 48S. Web of Amaurobius sylvestiis on a rough conglomerate rock. 
The spider had a nest in a crack at one side. 

(figs. 485, 486) are short, with the patella as wide as it is long 
and wider than the femur and tibia. The tarsus is half longer 
than wide and pointed at the end. In the tibia there is a little 
difference between the species that can be seen by looking at 
the palpi from the side ; in volucripcs there is a stout process 



THE CINIFL(3NID/E, OR CRIBELLATA 



21 



at the base as long as the tibia itself and pointing upward at a 
right angle with it (fig. 485) ; in muraria the corresponding pro- 
cess is short and turned forward, and the tibia seems propor- 
tionally longer (fig. 486). The cribellum in both these species 
is large and can easily 
be seen in front of the 
other spinnerets. The 
calamistrum extends 
over half the length of 
the fourth metatarsus, 
which in volncripes is 
slightly curved. 

Amaurobius sylvestris. 
— This is the common 
Amaurobius all over 
the northern part of 
the country. It resem- 
bles our species of Tegenaria (figs. 
228, 233) and may easily be mistaken 
for them. It does not have long 
upper spinnerets like Tegenaria, and 
the eyes are lower on the front of the 
head. The females (fig. 489) are 
two-fifths of an inch long, and the 
males a third of an inch, but with 

much longer legs. The head of the Figs. 489,490. Amaurobius sylves- 
. . 1 • 1 *"^- — 4^9' female enlarged four 

female is almost as wide as the mid- times. 490, male palpus without 
die of the thorax, and the eyes cover *^^ terminal joint to show the 

■' processes of the tibia. 

half its width. The front row of eyes 

are within their diameter of the front of the head. The head 
is low in front and higher halfway between the eyes and the 
dorsal groove. The mandibles are much swelled at the base in 
front, as they are in Tegenaria medicinalis. The abdomen is 




214 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




Fig. 4gi. Fresh part of the web 
of Amaurobius sylvestris. 



oval, widest behind, and usually as long as the cephalothorax 
or longer. The legs are not more than a fourth longer than 
the body, and slender for so large a spider. The cephalotho- 
rax is dark brown, darkest in front, and the legs are a little 
lighter brown, without markings. The abdomen is gray, with 

a double row of oblique yellow or 
white markings on the hinder half 
and two curved marks of the same 
color on the front. These spots 
sometimes run together, so that the 
whole middle of the abdomen is 
light colored. The males have the 
head narrower and the thorax wider 
and all the legs longer than the 
female, and the cephalothorax and 
mandibles are not so dark colored. The male palpi have the 
patella as short as wide, and the tibia very short and wide, with 
a short hook on the outer and a longer and more slender one 
on the inner side, as shown in fig. 490. The epigynum has 
a small middle lobe inclosed by two 
lateral lobes that meet behind, and by 
this the female can be distinguished 
from the next species, — Amaurobius 
fcrox. The cribellum (fig. 469) is some- 
times covered by a fold of the skin, so 
that it is not readily seen. The cala- 
mistrum (fig. 470) is a close row of 
curved hairs on the upper side of the 
fourth metatarsus, about half its length. In the male the 
cribellum is rudimentary, and there is no calamistrum. 

This spider makes a large loose web under stones and sticks 
(fig. 488). In the parts freshly made the loose bands of silk can 
be seen running irregularly about on the other threads (fig. 491). 




Fig. 492. Tibial joint of male 
.\maurobius ferox for com- 
parison with that of Amau- 
robius sylvestris (fig. 490). 



THE CINIFLONIDyE, OR CRIBELLATA 



215 




Amaurobius ferox. — This lives in houses and is probably an 
imported species, as it is more common in Europe. It grows 
a little larger than sylvestris (fig. 489), and 
the head is a little more narrowed in front 
of the legs. The colors and markings are 
much as in sylvestris, but the abdomen is 
often darker, and the middle light stripe on 
the front more distinct. The epigynum 
has a larger middle lobe, and the lateral 
lobes are straighter and do not meet in the 
middle. The males are colored like the 
females and have the thorax wider and 
the legs longer. The palpi of the male 
have the tarsus short and round. The tibia 
(fig. 492) has only a small short hook on the 
inner side, and a large blunt process on the 
Fig. 493. Amaurobius outcr sidc. The male palpi and the epigynum 

americana, enlarged distinguish thcSC easily from the laSt SpCcicS. 
tour times. ^ j i 

Amaurobius (Titanceca) americana. — Quarter 
of an inch long and deep black, except the cephalo- 
thorax, which is dull orange color, but covered, like 
the rest of the body, with long black hairs 
(fig. 493). Some individuals have a 
few light gray spots in pairs on the 
abdomen. The shape 
of the cephalothorax 
and abdomen are like 
Amaurobius sylves- 
tris, and the legs are 
of the same propor- 
tional length and 
stouter. The palpi 
of the female have the tibia and tarsus a little thickened. The 




Fig. 494. Female Uloborus plumipes, enlarged eight times, 
showmg the tuft of hairs on the front legs and the cala- 
mistrum on the fourth legs. 



2l6 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



metatarsus of the fourth legs has the calamistrum more distinct 
than in others of the family, and the metatarsus appears thicker 
up and down than it is sidewise. The male has the legs longer, 
particularly the first pair, of which the tibia and metatarsus are 
more elongated than the other joints, and have many small 
spines on the under side. The male palpi have the tarsus 




Fig. 495. Horizontal web of Uloboius near the ground, one side attached to a fallen 
tree. The outer spiral is finished over only half the diameter of the web. A line of 
loose silk runs across the web, and in the middle is a peculiar zigzag spiral. The 
figure is about the real size. 



large and round, supported by a wide and very complicated 
tibia. It lives under stones in the hottest and dryest places. 
Uloborus plumipes. - — Uloborus makes a round web, like those 
of the Epeiridae, and when hanging in it resembles a Tetra- 
gnatha. The adult female is about a quarter of an inch long, 
and narrow like Tetragnatha. The cephalothorax is low in 
front and extends forward, in the middle, beyond the mandibles, 
and the back part is widened and swelled up on each side 



I 



THE CINIFLONID^, OR CRIBELLATA 



217 



where the abdomen extends over it (fig. 494). The abdomen 
is slightly notched in front and covers the cephalothorax a 
quarter of its length. The abdomen is widest and thickest in 
the front third and has there a pair of humps. The eyes are 
in two rows, those of the upper 
row largest and on the top of 
the head, with the lateral pair 
farthest back. The front row 
are on the edge of the head 
close to the mandibles. The 
first pair of legs is the longest 
and is twice as long as the 
second. It has at the end of 
the tibia a brush of long coarse 
hairs. The colors are various 
shades of brown, from very 
light to almost black. The 
cephalothorax has a light mid- 
dle stripe. The legs have the 
joints light in the middle and 
black at the ends, except the 
first leg, which sometimes has 
the tarsus and metatarsus 
white, and the rest of the leg 
dark brown. The fourth meta- 
tarsus is curved in on the outer 
side, where the calamistrum is 
placed. The male is smaller 
than the female, the legs are longer, the abdomen is smaller 
and less distinctly humped, the first legs do not have the 
brushes on the tibia, and the fourth legs do not have the cala- 
mistrum. The webs resemble those of Epeira and Tetragnatha, 
and are horizontal or inclined. They are often left unfinished, 




Fig. 496. Web of young Uloborus in a rasp- 
berry bush. The lower half of the web 
is much wider than the upper. A band of 
silk runs across the middle and draws up 
with it some of the lower spirals. Half 
the real size. 



211 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 




with several turns of the wide temporary spiral still in them 
(fig. 495). Sometimes there are zigzag lines of loose silk across 

the center or in a middle spiral, 
and when the eggs are laid the 
long cocoons are fastened in a 
line of silk across the web (fig. 
497). When this is done the 
center of the radii of the web 
is usually at the upper part, 
instead of in the middle, and 
the whole web is one-sided. 
It is found all over the coun- 
try, usually in shady woods, 
in bushes, or in the lower 
Fig. 497. Web of old uioborus. The spider branches of trccs, especially 

is in the middle and at the left are three 

egg cocoons. One-third the real size. in the loWCr dead '^ 

branches of pines. 
Hyptiotes cavatus. — This peculiar spider resem- ^ 
bles in shape and color the end of one of the U 
dead pine branches among which it 
lives. It is a sixth of an inch long. 
The cephalothorax is as wide as long, 
highest in the middle, and hollowed 
behind under the abdomen. The abdo- 
men is oval, thickest behind, and flat- 
tened in front, and has on the back 
four pairs of slight elevations, on which 
are a few stiff hairs (fig. 498). The 
legs are short and thickest in the mid- 
dle, tapering toward the claws. The 
hind metatarsi are curved in at the 
calamistrum (fig. 499). The eyes are arranged as in Uioborus, 
but are farther apart and farther back on the cephalothorax. 





Fig. 498, 499. Hyptiotes cavatus. 
— 498, female enlarged eight 
times. 499, end of hind leg, 
showing calamistrum. 



THE CINIFLONID/E, OR CRIBELLATA 



219 



The male is half as large as the female, the abdomen smaller, 
and the humps lower. 

The web (fig. 500) consists of four rays crossed by a dozen 
or more threads. The point where the rays meet is attached 




Ik;. 500. Webs of Hyptiotes in the top of a bush. Half the real size. 

to a thread which extends to the spider's roost, usually the end 
of a twig. Here it holds on by the hind feet and draws the 
thread tight with the fore feet. When an insect strikes the 
web the spider lets go with the hind feet and is jerked for- 
ward by the contraction of the web, and slides along toward its 



220 



THE COIVIMON SPIDERS 



center, where it finds the prey and takes it out of the web to its 
perch. The making of this web has been described by Wilder 
in the Popular Science MontJdy in 1875. The cross threads are 
made separately, beginning with the longest. They are begun 
on the upper ray, the spider walking toward 
the center, combing out the threads with its 
hind legs, until it reaches a point where it 
can cross to the next. It is found all over 

\-| the country, usually in the pine woods. 

I Filistata hibernalis. — One of the most com- 

I mon house spiders in the southern states, 

■ making webs in corners and on walls and 

Vil fences (fig. 501). The body is about half 

■ fi an inch long, but the legs are so long and 

If I stout that it appears much larger. The 

first leg, which is the longest, is about twice 
the length of the body. The palpi are as 
long as the cephalothorax and thicker than 
in most spiders. The maxillae are inclined 

/■■|^v toward each other so that they meet in 
1 front of the labium. The cephalothorax 

I is flat and narrowed in front between the 

I palpi, and the mandibles are small. The 

eyes are in one group, close together. 
The color is dark gray, without any mark- 
ings, and the whole body is covered with 
fine short hairs. The calamistrum is very 
short, and near the base of the fourth meta- 
tarsus, where it can easily be seen. The 
web is like that of Dictyna, radiating irregularly from the spider's 
hiding place, and when this is on a flat wall forms sometimes 
a circle a foot or more in diameter, which becomes filled with 
dust and is enlarged and thickened as the spider grows. 




Fig. 501. Filistata hiber- 
nalis, enlarged twice. 



INDEX 



Abdomen, the posterior half of 

body, X. 
Acrosoma, i8S. 

mitrata, iSg. 

rugosa, 189. 

spinea, 190. 
Adult characters of spiders, xi. 
Agalena naevia, 93. 
Agalenidae, 91. 
Age of spiders, xv. 
Agroeca pratensis, 11. 
Air-sacs, x. 
Air-tubes, x. 
Amaurobius americana, 215. 

ferox, 215. 

sylvestris, 213. 
Anatomy of spiders, viii-xi. 
Anyphasna calcarata, 13. 

incerta, 12. 

rubra, 13. 

saltabunda, 14. 
Argiope, 194. 

cocoons of, 197, 200. 

riparia, 194. 

transversa, 198. 

webs of, 192, 194, 196, 199. 
Argyrodes, 123. 

fictilium, 126. 

nephilae, 125. 

trigonum, 124. 
Argyroepeira hortorum, 191. 
Ariadne bicolor, 123. 
Asagena aniericana, 122. 
Attidae, 41. 
Attus palustris, 42. 



the Bathyphantes, see under Linyphia, 143, 

145- 
Bites of spiders, viii. 
Breathing holes, x. 



Caelotes, see under Tegenaria, 99. 

Calamistrum, 205. 

Catalogue of American spiders, viii. 

Cephalothorax, viii. 

Ceratinalla fissiceps, 152. 

laetabilis, 151. 
Ceratinopsis interpres, 153. 
Chiracanthium viride, 21. 
Ciniflionidae, 205. 
Claws, X. 
Clubiona, 15. 

canadensis, 17. 

crassipalpis, 16. 

excepta, 19. 

ornata, 18. 

rubra, 18. 

tibialis, 16. 
Cobwebs, xvi. 
Cocoons, xiv. 
Colors, xi. 
Coriarachne depressa, 34. 

versicolor, 34. 
Cornicularia directa, 152. 
Coxa, the first joint of the leg, viii. 
Crab spiders, see Thomisida?, 24. 
Cribellata, 205. 
Cribellum, 205. 
Cyclosa conica, 183. 
Cyrba ta;niola, 63. 



222 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Daddy longlegs, see Pholcus, 128. 
Dendryphantes, 53, 54. 

aestivalis, 54. 

militaris, 53. 
Dew on cobwebs, 107, 108. 
Dictyna, 206-211. 

cruciata, 210. 

frondea, 210. 

volucripes, 211. 

volupis, 209. 
Diplostyla, see under Linyphia, 147. 

concolor = Linyphia concolor, 147. 

nigrina = Linyphia nigrina, 147. 
Dolomedes sexpunctatus, 85. 

tenebrosus, 87. 
Dorsal groove, viii. 
Drapetisca socialis = Linyphia socialis, 

145- 
Drassida;, i. 
Drassus saccatus, 6. 
Dysdera interrita, 22. 
Dysderidae, a family of spiders with six 

eyes, 22. 

Ebo latithorax, 37. 
Eggs of spiders, xiv. 
Epeira, 160-180. 

angulata, 164. 

caudata or conica, see Cyclosa, 1S3. 

cinerea, 165. 

corticaria, 165. 

directa, see Larinia directa, 1S2. 

displicata, 172. 

domiciliorum, see trivittata, 167. 

gibberosa, 175, 176. 

globosa, 173. 

insularis, 169. 

labyrinthea, 174. 

marmorea, see insularis, 169. 

nordmanni, 163. 

parvula, 179. 

patagiata, 160, 161. 

placida, 176. 



Epeira pratensis, 167. 

sclopetaria, 160, 161. 

scutulata, 178. 

silvatica, 164. 

stellata, 179. 

strix, 160, 161. 

thaddeus, 170. 

triaranea, see globosa, 173, 174. 

trifolium, 171, 172. 

trivittata, 166. 

verrucosa, 181. 
Epeiridae, 1 54. 
Epiblemum scenicum, 60. 
Epigynum, xi. 
Erigone, 148. 

autumnalis, 151. 

dentigera, 149. 

longipalpis, 149. 
Ero thoracica, 132. 
Euryopis funebiis, 127. 
Eyes of spiders, ix. 

Feet, X. 

Femur, viii. 

Filistata hibernalis, 220. 

Flat webs, 134; see Agalenidae, 91: 

Linyphia, 100. 
Flower spiders, see Misumena, 25. 
Flying spiders, Erigone, 151. 

Lycosa, 68. 

Geotrecha bivittata, 8. 

crocata, 7. 
Gnaphosa brumalis, 3. 

conspersa, 2. 
Gossamer, 149. 
Ground spiders, Lycosida;, 67. 

Drassidae, i. 

Habrocestum auratum, 43, 44. 

peregrinum, 45. 

splendens, 46. 
Hahnia bimaculata, 105. 



INDEX 



223 



Hahnia, cinerea, 106. 

Hairs, xi. 

Ilasarius hoyi, 63, 64. 

Head, viii. 

Helophora insignis, see Linyphia in- 

signis, 146. 
House spiders, xii. 
Hunting spiders, xv. 
Hyctia piivei, 62. 
Hyptiotes cavatus, 218. 

Icius elegans, 57, 58. 
mitratus, 57. 
palmarum, 56. 

Jumping spiders, see Attidas, 41. 

Labium, x. 

Larinia directa, 182. 

Latrodectus mactans, 122, 123. 

Legs, viii. 

Linyphia, 134. 

bucculenta = trilineata, 143. 

coccinea, 140. 

communis, 138. 

concolor, 147. 

insignis, 146. 

mandibulata, 139. 

marginata, 136. 

minuta, 144. 

nebulosa, 143. 

nigrina, 147. 

phrygiana, 141, 143. 

socialis, 145. 

trilineata, 143. 
Linyphiads, 134. 
Lungs, X. 
Lycosa carolinensis, 73, 74. 

cinerea, 73, 74. 

communis, 75. 

kochii, 74. 

nidicola, 69. 

nidifex, 70, 72, 73. 



Lycosa ocreata, ']']. 

polita, 70. 

pratensis, 69. 

scutulata, 76. 
Lycosidae, 67. 
Lyssomanes viridis, 65. 

Maevia vittata, 59. 
Male spiders, xi. 
Mandibles, viii. 

of Tetragnatha, 203, 204. 
Markings, xi. 
Marptusa familiaris, 61. 
Marx, George, list of spiders of North 

America, viii. 
Maxillas, x. 
Meta menardi, 190. 
Metatarsus, viii. 
Micaria aurata, 8. 

longipes, 8. 
Mimetus interfector, 132. 
Misumena, 25. 

Names of spiders, vii. 
Neon nellii, 47. 
Nests of spiders, xiv. 
Number of spiders, vii. 



Ocyale undata, 88. 
Qxyopes salticus, 88. 
' viridans, 89, 90. 

Palpal organ, xi. 
Palpi, viii. 
Pardosa, 78. 

albomaculata = greenlandica, 79. 

albopatella, 83. 

brunnea = glacialis, 80. 

glacialis, 80. 

greenlandica, 79. 

lapidicina, 78. 

montana = tachypoda, 8 1 . 

nigropalpis, 82. 



2 24 



THE COMMON SPIDERS 



Pardosa pallida, 8i. 

tachypoda, 8i . 
Patella, viii. 

Pellenes, see Ilabrocestum, 44-46. 
Peucetia, see Oxyopes viiidans, 89, 90. 
Phalangium, 12S. 
Phidippus multiformis, 48, 49. 

mystaceus, 50. 

tripunctatus, 51. 
Philodromus, 35. 

lineatus, 37. 

ornatus, 36. 

pictus, 37. 

vulgaris, 35. 
Pholcus phalangioides, 128, 129. 

cornutus, 130. 
Phrurolithus alarius, 9, 10. 
Pirata piraticus, 84. 
Plexippus puerperus, 52. 
Poecilochroa variegata, 4. 

bilineata, 4. 
Poison of spiders, viii. 
Prosthesima atra, 5. 

ecclesiastica, 5. 
Pythonissa imbecilla, 3. 

Round cobwebs, 155-159- 

Saitis pulex, 43. 

Salticus scenicus, see Epiblemum sceni- 

cum, 60. 
Scales, xi. 

Scytodes thoracica, 131. 
Sight of spiders, ix. 
Singa pratensis, 186. 

variabilis, 187. 
Spinnerets, x. 
Spintharus flavidus, 127. 
Spiral threads of cobwebs, 155-159. 
Steatoda borealis, 119. 

corollata, 121. 

guttata, 120. 

marmorata, 120. 



Steatoda triangulosa, 121. 
Stemonyphantes, see Linyphia trili- 

neata, 143. 
Sternum, x. 
Synemosyna, 64. 



Tarantula, see Lycosa carolinensis, 

7?,^ 74- 
Tarsus, viii. 
Tegejiaria, 96-103. 

complicata, 102. 

derhamii, 96-98. 

longitarsus, 102, 104. 

medicinalis, 99. 
Tetragnatha, 198-204. 

extensa, 201. 

grallator, 200. 

laboriosa, 202. 

straminea, 204. 
Thanatus coloradensis, 39, 40. 

lycosoides, 39, 40. 
Therididas, 107. 
Theridium, no. 

differens, 114. 

frondeum, 116, 117. 

globosum, 1 13. 

murarium, 1 1 5. 

rupicola, 113. 

spirale, 116. 

tepidariorum, in, 112. 

unimaculatum, 118. 

verecundum = Latrodectus mac- 
tans, 122. 
Theridula sphserula, 127, 128. 
Thomisids, 24. 
Thorax, viii. 
Tibellus duttonii, 39. 
Tibia, viii. 
Titanaeca, see Amaurobius americana, 

215. 
Tmarus caudatus, 38. 
Tracheae, x. 



INDEX 



225 



Trachelas ruber, 19, 20. 
Trochanter, viii. 

Uloborus plumipes, 216, 217. 

\Vinter habits of sliders, xv. 

Xysticus, 30. 
gulosus, 31. 
limbatus, 31. 



Xysticus nervosus, 32. 
quadrilineatus, ;^t,. 
stomachosus, 30. 
triguttatus, ^^. 
versicolor, 34. 

Zilla, 184-186. 
atrica, 185. 
montana, 186. 
x-notata, 186. 



• 8 6 5 7 



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